U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Opdivo® (nivolumab), in Combination with Cisplatin and Gemcitabine, for First-Line Treatment of Adult Patients with Unresectable or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

 

In the Phase 3 CheckMate -901 trial, Opdivo with cisplatin and gemcitabine demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival and progression-free survival compared to cisplatin-gemcitabine alone1

This is the first concurrent immunotherapy-chemotherapy combination approved for this patient population in the U.S.

 

PRINCETON, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Bristol Myers Squibb (NYSE: BMY) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Opdivo® (nivolumab), in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine, for the first-line treatment of adult patients with unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC), the most common type of bladder cancer.1,2 This approval is based on results from the Phase 3 CheckMate –901 trial which evaluated Opdivo in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine followed by Opdivo monotherapy (n=304), compared to cisplatin-gemcitabine alone (n=304), for patients with previously untreated unresectable or metastatic UC.1,3 The primary efficacy endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR).1

In the trial, with a median follow-up of approximately 33 months, treatment with Opdivo in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine reduced the risk of death by 22%, demonstrating a median OS of 21.7 months versus 18.9 months with cisplatin-gemcitabine alone (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.78; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.63, 0.96; p=0.0171).1,4 Patients receiving Opdivo in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine had their risk of disease progression or death reduced by 28%, with a median PFS of 7.9 months compared to 7.6 months with cisplatin-gemcitabine alone (HR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88; p=0.0012).1

Additionally, in exploratory analyses, treatment with Opdivo in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine resulted in an objective response rate (ORR) of 57.6% (n=175) (95% CI: 51.8, 63.2) versus 43.1% (n=131) (95% CI: 37.5, 48.9) with cisplatin-gemcitabine alone.1,4 The complete response (CR) rate and partial response (PR) rate seen in patients treated with Opdivo in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine was 22% (n=66) and 36% (n=109), respectively, versus 12% (n=36) and 31% (n=95) with cisplatin-gemcitabine alone.1

“This approval marks an important advancement in a historically difficult-to-treat setting, where there has been a need for new and differentiated first-line approaches that may offer patients a chance to live longer,”5 said Guru P. Sonpavde, MD, Medical Director of Genitourinary Oncology and the Phase I Clinical Research Unit and Christopher K. Glanz Chair for Bladder Cancer Research at the AdventHealth Cancer Institute, Orlando, Florida. “Based on outcomes and the safety profile seen in the CheckMate -901 clinical trial, the approval of Opdivo in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine has the potential to change how metastatic or unresectable UC is treated for certain patients and offers them new hope.”1

Opdivo is associated with the following Warnings & Precautions: severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions, including pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis and hepatotoxicity, endocrinopathies, dermatologic adverse reactions, nephritis with renal dysfunction, other immune-mediated adverse reactions; infusion-related reactions; complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); embryo-fetal toxicity; and increased mortality in patients with multiple myeloma when Opdivo is added to a thalidomide analogue and dexamethasone, which is not recommended outside of controlled clinical trials. Please see Important Safety Information below.1

“Bringing Opdivo to the first-line setting in UC with chemotherapy is the latest realization of our history of research and progress in immunotherapy, which has helped transform the treatment landscape for many cancers, including bladder cancer,”1,6 said Wendy Short Bartie, senior vice president and general manager, U.S. Hematology and Oncology at Bristol Myers Squibb. “This milestone adds a meaningful expansion to our portfolio of Opdivo-based treatments in genitourinary cancers, where we now have offerings in UC spanning three indications across stages of disease and treatment needs.”1

The FDA previously approved Opdivo for the adjuvant treatment of adult patients with UC who are at high risk of recurrence after undergoing radical resection of UC; it also previously approved Opdivo for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC who have had disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy or have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy.1

Bristol Myers Squibb’s supplemental Biologics License Application (sBLA) leading to today’s approval was granted Priority Review status by the FDA, and was approved under the FDA’s Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) pilot program, which aims to ensure that safe and effective treatments are available to patients as early as possible.7 The review was also conducted under the FDA’s Project Orbis initiative, which enables concurrent review by the health authorities in several other countries where the application remains under review.

About CheckMate -901

CheckMate -901 is a Phase 3, randomized, open-label trial evaluating Opdivo in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine followed by Opdivo monotherapy compared to cisplatin-gemcitabine alone, in patients with previously untreated unresectable or metastatic urothelial cancer.3

In the CheckMate -901 study, a total of 608 cisplatin-eligible patients were randomized to receive either Opdivo 360 mg in combination with cisplatin-gemcitabine every three weeks for up to six cycles followed by Opdivo monotherapy 480 mg every 4 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity up to a maximum of two years, or cisplatin-gemcitabine alone every three weeks for up to six cycles.1 The primary endpoints of this study were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR).1,3 The OS and PFS outcomes for cisplatin-eligible patients are based on the final efficacy analyses of these endpoints.4

Select Safety Profile from CheckMate -901

Serious adverse reactions occurred in 48% of patients receiving Opdivo with chemotherapy.1 The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in ≥2% of patients who received Opdivo with chemotherapy were urinary tract infection (4.9%), acute kidney injury (4.3%), anemia (3%), pulmonary embolism (2.6%), sepsis (2.3%), and platelet count decreased (2.3%).1 The most common adverse reactions (reported in ≥20% of patients) were nausea, fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, constipation, decreased appetite, rash, vomiting, and peripheral neuropathy.1 Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 3.6% patients who received Opdivo with chemotherapy; these included sepsis (1%).1 Opdivo and/or chemotherapy were discontinued in 30% of patients and were delayed in 67% of patients for an adverse reaction.1

About Urothelial Carcinoma

Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the U.S., with an estimated 83,190 new cases expected to be diagnosed in 2024.2,8 Urothelial carcinoma, which most frequently begins in the cells that line the inside of the bladder, accounts for approximately 90% of bladder cancer cases.2,8 In addition to the bladder, urothelial carcinoma can occur in other parts of the urinary tract, including the ureters and renal pelvis.2 The majority of urothelial carcinomas are diagnosed at an early stage, but approximately 50% of patients who undergo radical surgery will experience disease progression and recurrence, generally within two years post-surgery.9,10,11,12,13 Approximately 20% to 25% of patients with urothelial carcinoma present with metastatic disease, and treatment challenges have historically persisted in the first- and second-line settings, in part due to limited therapeutic options.13,14,15

INDICATION

OPDIVO® (nivolumab), in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine, is indicated as first-line treatment for adult patients with unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Severe and Fatal Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

Immune-mediated adverse reactions listed herein may not include all possible severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions.

Immune-mediated adverse reactions, which may be severe or fatal, can occur in any organ system or tissue. While immune-mediated adverse reactions usually manifest during treatment, they can also occur after discontinuation of OPDIVO. Early identification and management are essential to ensure safe use of OPDIVO. Monitor for signs and symptoms that may be clinical manifestations of underlying immune-mediated adverse reactions. Evaluate clinical chemistries including liver enzymes, creatinine, and thyroid function at baseline and periodically during treatment with OPDIVO. In cases of suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, initiate appropriate workup to exclude alternative etiologies, including infection. Institute medical management promptly, including specialty consultation as appropriate.

Withhold or permanently discontinue OPDIVO depending on severity (please see section 2 Dosage and Administration in the accompanying Full Prescribing Information). In general, if OPDIVO interruption or discontinuation is required, administer systemic corticosteroid therapy (1 to 2 mg/kg/day prednisone or equivalent) until improvement to Grade 1 or less. Upon improvement to Grade 1 or less, initiate corticosteroid taper and continue to taper over at least 1 month. Consider administration of other systemic immunosuppressants in patients whose immune-mediated adverse reactions are not controlled with corticosteroid therapy. Toxicity management guidelines for adverse reactions that do not necessarily require systemic steroids (e.g., endocrinopathies and dermatologic reactions) are discussed below.

Immune-Mediated Pneumonitis

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis. The incidence of pneumonitis is higher in patients who have received prior thoracic radiation. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 3.1% (61/1994) of patients, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.9%), and Grade 2 (2.1%).

Immune-Mediated Colitis

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated colitis. A common symptom included in the definition of colitis was diarrhea. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection/reactivation has been reported in patients with corticosteroid-refractory immune-mediated colitis. In cases of corticosteroid-refractory colitis, consider repeating infectious workup to exclude alternative etiologies. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, immune-mediated colitis occurred in 2.9% (58/1994) of patients, including Grade 3 (1.7%) and Grade 2 (1%).

Immune-Mediated Hepatitis and Hepatotoxicity

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated hepatitis. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 1.8% (35/1994) of patients, including Grade 4 (0.2%), Grade 3 (1.3%), and Grade 2 (0.4%).

Immune-Mediated Endocrinopathies

OPDIVO can cause primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency, immune-mediated hypophysitis, immune-mediated thyroid disorders, and Type 1 diabetes mellitus, which can present with diabetic ketoacidosis. Withhold OPDIVO depending on severity (please see section 2 Dosage and Administration in the accompanying Full Prescribing Information). For Grade 2 or higher adrenal insufficiency, initiate symptomatic treatment, including hormone replacement as clinically indicated. Hypophysitis can present with acute symptoms associated with mass effect such as headache, photophobia, or visual field defects. Hypophysitis can cause hypopituitarism; initiate hormone replacement as clinically indicated. Thyroiditis can present with or without endocrinopathy. Hypothyroidism can follow hyperthyroidism; initiate hormone replacement or medical management as clinically indicated. Monitor patients for hyperglycemia or other signs and symptoms of diabetes; initiate treatment with insulin as clinically indicated.

In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 1% (20/1994), including Grade 3 (0.4%) and Grade 2 (0.6%).

In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, hypophysitis occurred in 0.6% (12/1994) of patients, including Grade 3 (0.2%) and Grade 2 (0.3%).

In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, thyroiditis occurred in 0.6% (12/1994) of patients, including Grade 2 (0.2%).

In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, hyperthyroidism occurred in 2.7% (54/1994) of patients, including Grade 3 (<0.1%) and Grade 2 (1.2%).

In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, hypothyroidism occurred in 8% (163/1994) of patients, including Grade 3 (0.2%) and Grade 2 (4.8%).

In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, diabetes occurred in 0.9% (17/1994) of patients, including Grade 3 (0.4%) and Grade 2 (0.3%), and 2 cases of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Immune-Mediated Nephritis with Renal Dysfunction

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated nephritis. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction occurred in 1.2% (23/1994) of patients, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.5%), and Grade 2 (0.6%).

Immune-Mediated Dermatologic Adverse Reactions

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated rash or dermatitis. Exfoliative dermatitis, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) has occurred with PD-1/PD-L1 blocking antibodies. Topical emollients and/or topical corticosteroids may be adequate to treat mild to moderate nonexfoliative rashes.

Withhold or permanently discontinue OPDIVO depending on severity (please see section 2 Dosage and Administration in the accompanying Full Prescribing Information).

In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, immune-mediated rash occurred in 9% (171/1994) of patients, including Grade 3 (1.1%) and Grade 2 (2.2%).

Other Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of <1% (unless otherwise noted) in patients who received OPDIVO monotherapy or were reported with the use of other PD-1/PD-L1 blocking antibodies. Severe or fatal cases have been reported for some of these adverse reactions: cardiac/vascular: myocarditis, pericarditis, vasculitis; nervous system: meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and demyelination, myasthenic syndrome/myasthenia gravis (including exacerbation), Guillain-Barré syndrome, nerve paresis, autoimmune neuropathy; ocular: uveitis, iritis, and other ocular inflammatory toxicities can occur; gastrointestinal: pancreatitis to include increases in serum amylase and lipase levels, gastritis, duodenitis; musculoskeletal and connective tissue: myositis/polymyositis, rhabdomyolysis, and associated sequelae including renal failure, arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica; endocrine: hypoparathyroidism; other (hematologic/immune): hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), systemic inflammatory response syndrome, histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi lymphadenitis), sarcoidosis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, solid organ transplant rejection, other transplant (including corneal graft) rejection.

Some ocular IMAR cases can be associated with retinal detachment. Various grades of visual impairment, including blindness, can occur. If uveitis occurs in combination with other immune-mediated adverse reactions, consider a Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada–like syndrome, which has been observed in patients receiving OPDIVO, as this may require treatment with systemic corticosteroids to reduce the risk of permanent vision loss.

Infusion-Related Reactions

OPDIVO can cause severe infusion-related reactions. Discontinue OPDIVO in patients with severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) infusion-related reactions. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion in patients with mild (Grade 1) or moderate (Grade 2) infusion-related reactions. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy as a 60-minute infusion, infusion-related reactions occurred in 6.4% (127/1994) of patients. In a separate trial in which patients received OPDIVO monotherapy as a 60-minute infusion or a 30-minute infusion, infusion-related reactions occurred in 2.2% (8/368) and 2.7% (10/369) of patients, respectively. Additionally, 0.5% (2/368) and 1.4% (5/369) of patients, respectively, experienced adverse reactions within 48 hours of infusion that led to dose delay, permanent discontinuation or withholding of OPDIVO.

Complications of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Fatal and other serious complications can occur in patients who receive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) before or after being treated with OPDIVO. Transplant-related complications include hyperacute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) after reduced intensity conditioning, and steroid-requiring febrile syndrome (without an identified infectious cause). These complications may occur despite intervening therapy between OPDIVO and allogeneic HSCT.

Follow patients closely for evidence of transplant-related complications and intervene promptly. Consider the benefit versus risks of treatment with OPDIVO prior to or after an allogeneic HSCT.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Based on its mechanism of action and findings from animal studies, OPDIVO can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with OPDIVO and for at least 5 months after the last dose.

Increased Mortality in Patients with Multiple Myeloma when OPDIVO is Added to a Thalidomide Analogue and Dexamethasone

In randomized clinical trials in patients with multiple myeloma, the addition of OPDIVO to a thalidomide analogue plus dexamethasone resulted in increased mortality. Treatment of patients with multiple myeloma with a PD-1 or PD-L1 blocking antibody in combination with a thalidomide analogue plus dexamethasone is not recommended outside of controlled clinical trials.

Lactation

There are no data on the presence of OPDIVO in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed children, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment and for 5 months after the last dose.

Serious Adverse Reactions

In Checkmate 901, serious adverse reactions occurred in 48% of patients receiving OPDIVO in combination with chemotherapy. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reporting in ≥2% of patients who received OPDIVO with chemotherapy were urinary tract infection (4.9%), acute kidney injury (4.3%), anemia (3%), pulmonary embolism (2.6%), sepsis (2.3%), and platelet count decreased (2.3%). Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 3.6% of patients who received OPDIVO in combination with chemotherapy; these included sepsis (1%). OPDIVO and/or chemotherapy were discontinued in 30% of patients and were delayed in 67% of patients for an adverse reaction.

Common Adverse Reactions

In Checkmate 901, the most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were nausea, fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, constipation, decreased appetite, rash, vomiting, and peripheral neuropathy.

Please see US Full Prescribing Information for OPDIVO.

Bristol Myers Squibb: Creating a Better Future for People with Cancer

Bristol Myers Squibb is inspired by a single vision — transforming patients’ lives through science. The goal of the company’s cancer research is to deliver medicines that offer each patient a better, healthier life and to make cure a possibility. Building on a legacy across a broad range of cancers that have changed survival expectations for many, Bristol Myers Squibb researchers are exploring new frontiers in personalized medicine and, through innovative digital platforms, are turning data into insights that sharpen their focus. Deep understanding of causal human biology, cutting-edge capabilities and differentiated research platforms uniquely position the company to approach cancer from every angle.

Cancer can have a relentless grasp on many parts of a patient’s life, and Bristol Myers Squibb is committed to taking actions to address all aspects of care, from diagnosis to survivorship. As a leader in cancer care, Bristol Myers Squibb is working to empower all people with cancer to have a better future.

About Bristol Myers Squibb’s Patient Access Support

Bristol Myers Squibb remains committed to providing assistance so that cancer patients who need our medicines can access them and expedite time to therapy.

BMS Access Support®, the Bristol Myers Squibb patient access and reimbursement program, is designed to help appropriate patients initiate and maintain access to BMS medicines during their treatment journey. BMS Access Support offers benefit investigation, prior authorization assistance, as well as co-pay assistance for eligible, commercially insured patients. More information about our access and reimbursement support can be obtained by calling BMS Access Support at 1-800-861-0048 or by visiting www.bmsaccesssupport.com.

About the Bristol Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical Collaboration

In 2011, through a collaboration agreement with Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Bristol Myers Squibb expanded its territorial rights to develop and commercialize Opdivo globally, except in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, where Ono had retained all rights to the compound at the time. On July 23, 2014, Ono and Bristol Myers Squibb further expanded the companies’ strategic collaboration agreement to jointly develop and commercialize multiple immunotherapies – as single agents and combination regimens – for patients with cancer in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.

About Bristol Myers Squibb

Bristol Myers Squibb is a global biopharmaceutical company whose mission is to discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases. For more information about Bristol Myers Squibb, visit us at BMS.com or follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and Instagram.

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 regarding, among other things, the research, development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products. All statements that are not statements of historical facts are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and projections about our future financial results, goals, plans and objectives and involve inherent risks, assumptions and uncertainties, including internal or external factors that could delay, divert or change any of them in the next several years, that are difficult to predict, may be beyond our control and could cause our future financial results, goals, plans and objectives to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, the statements. These risks, assumptions, uncertainties and other factors include, among others, whether Opdivo in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine for the additional indication described in this release will be commercially successful, that any marketing approvals, if granted, may have significant limitations on their use, and, that continued approval of such combination treatment for such additional indication described in this release may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials. No forward-looking statement can be guaranteed. Forward-looking statements in this press release should be evaluated together with the many risks and uncertainties that affect Bristol Myers Squibb’s business and market, particularly those identified in the cautionary statement and risk factors discussion in Bristol Myers Squibb’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as updated by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The forward-looking statements included in this document are made only as of the date of this document and except as otherwise required by applicable law, Bristol Myers Squibb undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.

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References

  1. Opdivo Prescribing Information. Opdivo U.S. Product Information. Last updated: March 2024. Princeton, N.J.: Bristol Myers Squibb Company.
  2. American Cancer Society. About Bladder Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/types/bladder-cancer/about.html. Accessed February 06, 2024.
  3. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03036098. Study of Nivolumab in Combination With Ipilimumab or Standard of Care Chemotherapy Compared to the Standard of Care Chemotherapy Alone in Treatment of Participants With Untreated Inoperable or Metastatic Urothelial Cancer (CheckMate901). Available at https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT03036098&rank=1. Accessed February 06, 2024.
  4. van der Heijden MS, Sonpavde G, Powles T, et al. Nivolumab plus Gemcitabine-Cisplatin in Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma. N Engl J Medicine. 2023; 389:1778-1789. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2309863
  5. SEER. Cancer Stat Facts: Bladder Cancer. Available at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/urinb.html. Accessed February 06, 2024.
  6. American Cancer Society. Treating Bladder Cancer. Available at www.cancer.org/cancer/types/bladder-cancer/treating.html. Accessed February 06, 2024.
  7. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Real-Time Oncology Review Pilot Program. https://www.fda.gov/about-fda/oncology-cener-excellence/real-time-oncology-review. Accessed February 06, 2024.
  8. Bilim V, Kuroki H, Shirono Y, et al. Advanced Bladder Cancer: Changing the Treatment Landscape. J Pers Med. 2022;12(10):1745. doi:10.3390/jpm12101745
  9. World Health Organization: Bladder Cancer. Available at https://www.iarc.who.int/cancer-type/bladder-cancer/. Accessed February 08, 2024.
  10. Dason S, Cha EK, Falavolti C, et al. Late Recurrences Following Radical Cystectomy Have Distinct Prognostic and Management Considerations. J Urol. 2020;204(3):460-465. doi:10.1097/JU.0000000000001028
  11. American Cancer Society: Bladder Cancer Early Detection Diagnosis and Staging. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/types/bladder-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging.html. Accessed February 06, 2024.
  12. Mari A, Campi R, Tellini R, et al. Patterns and predictors of recurrence after open radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: a comprehensive review of the literature. World J Urol. 2018;36(2):157-170. doi:10.1007/s00345-017-2115-4
  13. Svatek RS, Siefker-Radtke A, Dinney CP. Management of metastatic urothelial cancer: the role of surgery as an adjunct to chemotherapy. Can Urol Assoc J. 2009;3(6 Suppl 4):S228-S231. doi:10.5489/cuaj.1203
  14. Vassiliou V, Katsila T, Sodergren SC, Kardamakis D. Radiotherapy in Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: Rationale and Clinical Applications. Anticancer Res. 2022;42(8):3767-3778. doi:10.21873/anticanres.15867
  15. Apolo AB, Nadal R, Girardi DM, et al. Phase I Study of Cabozantinib and Nivolumab Alone or With Ipilimumab for Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma and Other Genitourinary Tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2020;38(31):3672-3684. doi:10.1200/JCO.20.01652

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Source: Bristol Myers Squibb

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