FDA Approves Expanded Use of Amgen's Xgeva
Published: Jan 05, 2018
FDA Approves Amgen's XGEVA (denosumab) for the Prevention of Skeletal-Related Events in Patients With Multiple Myeloma
Expansion of Indication Offers Patients a New Treatment Option
THOUSAND OAKS, Calif., Jan. 5, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Amgen (NASDAQ:AMGN) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the supplemental Biologics License Application (sBLA) for XGEVA® (denosumab) to expand the currently approved indication for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors to include patients with multiple myeloma. The approval is based on data from the pivotal Phase 3 '482 study, the largest international multiple myeloma clinical trial ever conducted, which enrolled 1,718 patients.
"Up to 40 percent of patients remain untreated for the prevention of bone complications, and the percentage is highest among patients with renal impairment at the time of diagnosis," said Noopur Raje, M.D., director, Center for Multiple Myeloma, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston. "Denosumab, which is not cleared through the kidneys, offers multiple myeloma patients bone protection with a convenient subcutaneous administration, providing patients with a novel treatment option."
"Bone complications can be devastating for patients with multiple myeloma. Previously, treatment options for the prevention of bone complications were limited to bisphosphonates, which unlike XGEVA, are cleared by the kidneys," said David M. Reese, M.D., senior vice president of Translational Sciences and Oncology at Amgen. "We are pleased that the FDA has approved the expanded indication for XGEVA, providing a new option for patients and physicians, underscoring our commitment to advancing care for patients with multiple myeloma."
XGEVA is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to and neutralizes RANK ligand (RANKL) - a protein essential for the formation, function and survival of osteoclasts, which break down bone - thereby inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone destruction. XGEVA is currently the number one prescribed bone-targeting agent in the U.S. for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors. Additional regulatory applications for XGEVA for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with multiple myeloma are underway and have been submitted to health authorities worldwide.
About '482 Study (NCT01345019)
The study met the primary endpoint, demonstrating non-inferiority of XGEVA to zoledronic acid in delaying the time to first on-study skeletal-related event in patients with multiple myeloma (HR=0.98, 95 percent CI: 0.85, 1.14; p=0.01). The secondary endpoints, delaying time to first skeletal-related event and delaying time to first-and-subsequent skeletal-related events, did not demonstrate superiority. Overall survival was comparable between XGEVA and zoledronic acid, with a hazard ratio of 0.90 (95 percent CI: 0.70, 1.16; p=0.41). The median difference in progression-free survival favored XGEVA by 10.7 months (HR=0.82, 95 percent CI: 0.68-0.99; descriptive p=0.036). Median progression-free survival was 46.1 months (95 percent CI: 34.3 months, not estimable [NE], n=219) for XGEVA and 35.4 months (95 percent CI: 30.2 months, NE, n=260) for zoledronic acid.
Adverse events observed in patients treated with XGEVA were generally consistent with the known safety profile of XGEVA. The most common adverse reactions (greater than or equal to 10 percent) were diarrhea (34 percent), nausea (32 percent), anemia (22 percent), back pain (21 percent), thrombocytopenia (19 percent), peripheral edema (17 percent), hypocalcemia (16 percent), upper respiratory tract infection (15 percent), rash (14 percent) and headache (11 percent). The most common adverse reaction resulting in discontinuation of XGEVA (greater than or equal to 1.0 percent) was osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). In the primary treatment phase of the '482 study, ONJ was confirmed in 4.1 percent of patients in the XGEVA group (median exposure of 16 months; range: 1 - 50) and 2.8 percent of patients in the zoledronic acid group (median 15 months, range: 1 - 45 months).
About Multiple Myeloma and Bone Complications
More than 90 percent of patients develop osteolytic lesions during the course of the disease.4 Preventing bone complications is a critical aspect of caring for patients with multiple myeloma, because these events can cause significant morbidity.5 Current treatment options for fractures and other bone complications are limited to bisphosphonates, including zoledronic acid, which are cleared through the kidneys.6 Approximately 60 percent of all multiple myeloma patients have or will develop renal impairment over the course of the disease.7
About XGEVA® (denosumab)
U.S. Important Safety Information
An increased risk of hypocalcemia has been observed in clinical trials of patients with increasing renal dysfunction, most commonly with severe dysfunction (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/minute and/or on dialysis), and with inadequate/no calcium supplementation. Monitor calcium levels and calcium and vitamin D intake.
Drug Products with Same Active Ingredient
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
Patients with a history of tooth extraction, poor oral hygiene, or use of a dental appliance are at a greater risk to develop ONJ. Other risk factors for the development of ONJ include immunosuppressive therapy, treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors, systemic corticosteroids, diabetes, and gingival infections.
Perform an oral examination and appropriate preventive dentistry prior to the initiation of XGEVA® and periodically during XGEVA® therapy. Advise patients regarding oral hygiene practices. Avoid invasive dental procedures during treatment with XGEVA®. Consider temporarily interrupting XGEVA® therapy if an invasive dental procedure must be performed.
Patients who are suspected of having or who develop ONJ while on XGEVA® should receive care by a dentist or an oral surgeon. In these patients, extensive dental surgery to treat ONJ may exacerbate the condition.
Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femoral Fracture
Atypical femoral fractures most commonly occur with minimal or no trauma to the affected area. They may be bilateral and many patients report prodromal pain in the affected area, usually presenting as dull, aching thigh pain, weeks to months before a complete fracture occurs. A number of reports note that patients were also receiving treatment with glucocorticoids (e.g. prednisone) at the time of fracture. During XGEVA® treatment, patients should be advised to report new or unusual thigh, hip, or groin pain. Any patient who presents with thigh or groin pain should be suspected of having an atypical fracture and should be evaluated to rule out an incomplete femur fracture. Patients presenting with an atypical femur fracture should also be assessed for symptoms and signs of fracture in the contralateral limb. Interruption of XGEVA® therapy should be considered, pending a risk/benefit assessment, on an individual basis.
Hypercalcemia Following Treatment Discontinuation in Patients with Growing Skeletons
Advise females of reproductive potential to use highly effective contraception during therapy, and for at least 5 months after the last dose of XGEVA®. Apprise the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus if XGEVA® is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while patients are exposed to XGEVA®.
For multiple myeloma patients receiving XGEVA®, the most common adverse reactions were diarrhea, nausea, anemia, back pain, thrombocytopenia, peripheral edema, hypocalcemia, upper respiratory tract infection, rash, and headache. The most common serious adverse reaction was pneumonia. The most common adverse reaction resulting in discontinuation of XGEVA® was osteonecrosis of the jaw.
The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA® for giant cell tumor of bone were arthralgia, headache, nausea, back pain, fatigue, and pain in extremity. The most common serious adverse reactions were osteonecrosis of the jaw and osteomyelitis. The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of XGEVA® were osteonecrosis of the jaw and tooth abscess or tooth infection.
The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA® for hypercalcemia of malignancy were nausea, dyspnea, decreased appetite, headache, peripheral edema, vomiting, anemia, constipation, and diarrhea.
Denosumab is also marketed as Prolia® in other indications.
About Amgen's Commitment to Oncology
Amgen focuses on areas of high unmet medical need and leverages its expertise to strive for solutions that improve health outcomes and dramatically improve people's lives. A biotechnology pioneer since 1980, Amgen has grown to be one of the world's leading independent biotechnology companies, has reached millions of patients around the world and is developing a pipeline of medicines with breakaway potential.
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CONTACT: Amgen, Thousand Oaks
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