FDA Approves Celgene Corporation's Abraxane for Lung Cancer
Published: Oct 12, 2012
“Non-small cell is the most common type of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States,” said Dr. Mark A. Socinski, MD, Director, Lung Cancer Section, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, and lead investigator of ABRAXANE phase II and phase III lung cancer trials. “The FDA approval of ABRAXANE is exciting for healthcare professionals because it offers an important new treatment option for all types of non-small cell lung cancer patients, in an area that has seen few treatment advancements in recent years.”
The ABRAXANE sNDA approval is based upon the results of CA-031, a phase III, multi-center, randomized open-label study where patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) received either ABRAXANE (100mg/m2) weekly plus carboplatin (AUC=6) every three weeks (n=521) or paclitaxel (200mg/m2) every three weeks plus carboplatin (AUC=6) (n=531). The study met its primary end-point demonstrating a statistically significantly higher overall response rate for patients in the ABRAXANE arm compared to those in the paclitaxel arm (33% vs 25%).
In the phase III study, ABRAXANE demonstrated a higher overall response rate as compared to paclitaxel for squamous cell carcinoma (41% vs. 24%) and large cell carcinoma (33% vs. 15%). ABRAXANE achieved a similar overall response rate to paclitaxel in patients with carcinoma/adenocarcinoma (26% vs. 27%).
The most common adverse reactions (=20%) of ABRAXANE in combination with carboplatin for NSCLC are anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, alopecia, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, and fatigue.
Additional regulatory submissions have been filed in Japan, Australia and New Zealand with anticipated decisions in 2013.
This approval marks the second indication for ABRAXANE in the United States. In the United States, ABRAXANE was first approved in 2005 for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy.
ABRAXANE® for Injectable Suspension (paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension) is indicated for the treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline unless clinically contraindicated.
ABRAXANE is indicated for the first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, in combination with carboplatin, in patients who are not candidates for curative surgery or radiation therapy.
Important Safety Information
WARNING - NEUTROPENIA
Do not administer ABRAXANE therapy to patients who have baseline neutrophil counts of less than 1,500 cells/mm3. In order to monitor the occurrence of bone marrow suppression, primarily neutropenia, which may be severe and result in infection, it is recommended that frequent peripheral blood cell counts be performed on all patients receiving ABRAXANE
Note: An albumin form of paclitaxel may substantially affect a drug’s functional properties relative to those of drug in solution. DO NOT SUBSTITUTE FOR OR WITH OTHER PACLITAXEL FORMULATIONS
ABRAXANE should not be used in patients who have baseline neutrophil counts of < 1,500 cells/mm3
Patients who experience a severe hypersensitivity reaction to ABRAXANE should not be rechallenged with the drug
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Bone marrow suppression (primarily neutropenia) is dose-dependent and a dose-limiting toxicity of ABRAXANE
Monitor for myelotoxicity by performing complete blood cell counts frequently, including prior to dosing on Day 1 for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and Days 1, 8, and 15 for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Do not administer ABRAXANE to patients with baseline absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) of less than 1,500 cells/mm3
In the case of severe neutropenia (<500 cells/mm3 for seven days or more) during a course of ABRAXANE therapy, reduce the dose of ABRAXANE in subsequent courses in patients with either MBC or NSCLC
In patients with MBC, resume treatment with every-3-week cycles of ABRAXANE after ANC recovers to a level >1,500 cells/mm3 and platelets recover to >100,000 cells/mm3
In patients with NSCLC, resume treatment if recommended at permanently reduced doses for both weekly ABRAXANE and every-3-week carboplatin after ANC recovers to at least 1,500 cells/mm3 and platelet count of at least 100,000 cells/mm3 on Day 1 or to an ANC of at least 500 cells/mm3 and platelet count of at least 50,000 cells/mm3 on Days 8 or 15 of the cycle
Sensory neuropathy is dose- and schedule-dependent
The occurrence of Grade 1 or 2 sensory neuropathy does not generally require dose modification
If = Grade 3 sensory neuropathy develops, treatment should be withheld until resolution to Grade 1 or 2 for MBC or until resolution to = Grade1 for NSCLC followed by a dose reduction for all subsequent courses of ABRAXANE
Severe and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions, have been reported
Patients who experience a severe hypersensitivity reaction to ABRAXANE should not be re-challenged with this drug
Because the exposure and toxicity of paclitaxel can be increased with hepatic impairment, administration of ABRAXANE in patients with hepatic impairment should be performed with caution
The starting dose should be reduced for patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment
ABRAXANE contains albumin (human), a derivative of human blood
Use in Pregnancy: Pregnancy Category D
ABRAXANE can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman
If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus
Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving ABRAXANE
Use in Men
Men should be advised not to father a child while receiving ABRAXANE
Randomized Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC) Study
The most common adverse reactions (=20%) with single-agent use of ABRAXANE in the MBC study were alopecia (90%), neutropenia (all cases 80%; severe 9%), sensory neuropathy (any symptoms 71%; severe 10%), abnormal ECG (all patients 60%; patients with normal baseline 35%), fatigue/asthenia (any 47%; severe 8%), myalgia/arthralgia (any 44%; severe 8%), AST elevation (any 39%), alkaline phosphatase elevation (any 36%), anemia (all cases 33%; severe 1%), nausea (any 30%; severe 3%), infections (24%), and diarrhea (any 27%; severe <1%)
Sensory neuropathy was the cause of ABRAXANE discontinuation in 7/229 (3%) patients
Other adverse reactions of note included vomiting (any 18%; severe 4%), renal dysfunction (any 11%; severe 1%), fluid retention (any 10%; severe 0%); mucositis (any 7%; severe <1%), hepatic dysfunction (elevations in bilirubin 7%), hypersensitivity reactions (any 4%; severe 0%), thrombocytopenia (any 2%; severe <1%), and injection site reactions (<1%). In all ABRAXANE treated patients (n=366) ocular/visual disturbances were reported (any 13%; severe 1%). Dehydration and pyrexia were also reported
Severe cardiovascular events possibly related to single-agent ABRAXANE occurred in approximately 3% of patients and included cardiac ischemia/infarction, chest pain, cardiac arrest, supraventricular tachycardia, edema, thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, pulmonary emboli, and hypertension
Cases of cerebrovascular attacks (strokes) and transient ischemic attacks have been reported
Non-Small Cell Lung (NSCLC) Cancer Study
Adverse reactions with a difference of =2%, Grade 3 or higher, with combination use of ABRAXANE and carboplatin in NSCLC were: anemia (28%); neutropenia (47%); thrombocytopenia (18%), and peripheral neuropathy (3%)
The most common adverse reactions (= 20%) of ABRAXANE in combination with carboplatin for NSCLC were anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, alopecia, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, and fatigue
The most common serious adverse reactions of ABRAXANE in combination with carboplatin for NSCLC were anemia (4%) and pneumonia (3%)
The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of ABRAXANE were neutropenia (3%), thrombocytopenia (3%), and periopheral neuropathy (1%)
The most common adverse reactions resulting in dose reduction of ABRAXANE were neutropenia (24%), thrombocytopenia (13%), and anemia (6%)
The most common adverse reactions leading to withholding or delay in ABRAXANE dosing were neutropenia (41%), thrombocytopenia (30%), and anemia (16%)
The following common (=10% incidence) adverse reactions were observed at a similar incidence in ABRAXANE plus carboplatin-treated and paclitaxel injection plus carboplatin-treated patients: alopecia 56%, nausea 27%, fatigue 25%, decreased appetite 17%, asthenia 16%, constipation 16%, diarrhea 15%, vomiting 12%, dyspnea 12%, and rash 10% (incidence rates are for the ABRAXANE plus carboplatin treatment group)
Post-Marketing Experience with ABRAXANE and other Paclitaxel Formulations
Severe and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with ABRAXANE. The use of ABRAXANE in patients previously exhibiting hypersensitivity to paclitaxel injection or to human albumin has not been studied
There have been reports of congestive heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction with ABRAXANE, primarily among individuals with underlying cardiac history or prior exposure to cardiotoxic drugs
There have been reports of extravasation of ABRAXANE. Given the possibility of extravasation, it is advisable to monitor closely the ABRAXANE infusion site for possible infiltration during drug administration
Caution should be exercised when administering ABRAXANE concomitantly with medicines known to inhibit or induce either CYP2C8 or CYP3A4
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
It is not known whether paclitaxel is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother
The safety and efficacy of ABRAXANE in pediatric patients have not been evaluated
No toxicities occurred notably more frequently among patients = 65 years of age who received ABRAXANE for MBC
Myelosuppression, peripheral neuropathy, and arthralgia were more frequent in patients =65 years of age treated with ABRAXANE and carboplatin in NSCLC
The use of ABRAXANE has not been studied in patients with renal impairment
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Dose adjustment is recommended for patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment and patients who experience severe neutropenia or severe sensory neuropathy during treatment with ABRAXANE
Withhold ABRAXANE if AST >10 x ULN or bilirubin > 5 x ULN
Dose reductions or discontinuation may be needed based on severe hematologic or neurologic toxicities Monitor patients closely
Please see full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNING, CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS.
About Non-small cell lung cancer
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). NSCLC is classified into two major types: squamous cell carcinoma, which accounts for 25-30% of all NSCLC cases and non-squamous cell carcinoma, the most common lung cancer in the U.S. When possible, lung cancer is primarily treated by surgical resection with curative intent. Chemotherapy may be used both pre-operatively (so-called "neoadjuvant chemotherapy") and post-operatively ("adjuvant chemotherapy") and as first-line for more advanced stages of lung cancer.
ABRAXANE is an albumin-bound form of paclitaxel that is manufactured using patented nab® technology. ABRAXANE is formulated with albumin, a human protein, and is free of solvents.
In the United States, ABRAXANE was first approved in January 2005 for the treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline unless clinically contraindicated. ABRAXANE is also available in Europe, Canada, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, India, South Korea, Bhutan, Nepal, United Arab Emirates and China for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
In October 2012, ABRAXANE was approved by the FDA for the first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, in combination with carboplatin, in patients who are not candidates for curative surgery or radiation therapy.
For the full prescribing information for ABRAXANE please visit http://www.abraxane.com.
ABRAXANE is currently in various stages of investigation for the treatment of the following cancers: pancreatic, metastatic melanoma, bladder, ovarian, and expanded applications for breast cancer.
Celgene Corporation, headquartered in Summit, New Jersey, is an integrated global biopharmaceutical company engaged primarily in the discovery, development and commercialization of novel therapies for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases through gene and protein regulation. For more information, please visit the company’s Web site at www.celgene.com.
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