European Commission Approves Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Sprycel (dasatinib) in Combination with Chemotherapy for Treatment of Pediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
PRINCETON, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE: BMY) today announced that the European Commission (EC) has approved Sprycel (dasatinib) in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This is the second pediatric leukemia indication for Sprycel in Europe. The approval includes both the tablet form of Sprycel and, in a first for pediatric patients with ALL in Europe, the powder for oral suspension (PFOS) formulation of Sprycel.
“We are proud that the approval by the European Commission brings children with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia a new treatment option, including a powder formulation developed as part of our commitment to addressing the unique needs of children with cancer,” said Fouad Namouni, M.D., head, oncology development, Bristol-Myers Squibb.
The approval is based on data from CA180-372 (NCT01460160), a Phase 2 trial which evaluated the addition of Sprycel to a chemotherapy regimen modeled on a Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster high-risk backbone in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ ALL. Results from the CA180-372 trial presented at the 2017 American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting showed that at three years, the combination of Sprycel and chemotherapy demonstrated an event-free survival (EFS) rate, the study’s primary endpoint, of 65.5% (95% CI: 57.7 to 73.7), and an overall survival (OS) rate of 91.5% (95% CI: 84.2 to 95.5).
The safety profile of Sprycel administered in combination with chemotherapy in pediatric patients with Ph+ ALL in the CA180-372 trial was consistent with the known safety profile of Sprycel in adults with Ph+ ALL and the known safety profile of the chemotherapy regimen. Primary toxicities of any causality included hematological toxicity such as grade 3 or 4 febrile neutropenia (75.5%), sepsis (23.6%) and bacteremia (24.5%). Non-hematologic, non-infectious grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs) attributed to Sprycel and reported in more than 10% of patients were limited to elevated alanine aminotransferase (21.7%) and aspartate transaminase (10.4%). Other grade 3 or 4 AEs attributed to Sprycel were pleural effusion (3.8%), edema (2.8%), hemorrhage (5.7%) and cardiac failure (0.8%). No events of pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary arterial hypertension were reported.
Patients treated in the study (n=106), all aged younger than 18 years, received Sprycel at a daily dose of 60 mg/m2 on a continuous dosing regimen for up to 24 months, in combination with chemotherapy. Seventy-seven percent of patients (N=82) received Sprycel tablets exclusively, and 23% of patients (N=24) received Sprycel PFOS at least once.
The recommended starting dosage for Sprycel in pediatric patients with Ph+ ALL is based on body weight. The Sprycel PFOS is for patients weighing 10 kg or less, or who cannot swallow tablets whole. The recommended dose for both the tablet and PFOS formulations should be recalculated every three months based on changes in body weight, or more often if necessary. Sprycel tablets should be swallowed whole and should not be crushed, cut or chewed. The exposure in patients receiving a crushed tablet is lower than in those swallowing an intact tablet. The Sprycel tablet and PFOS formulations are not bioequivalent. Patients should only switch between the tablet and PFOS formulations at the discretion of a medical professional, who will decide the right formulation and dose based on the patient’s weight.
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Sprycel is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) designed to help inhibit BCR-ABL, an abnormal protein found on the mutated Philadelphia chromosome in most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and some patients with ALL, which can trigger the overproduction of damaged or immature white blood cells. By targeting the BCR-ABL protein, Sprycel can reduce the number of damaged white blood cells in the body, allowing for the production of more normal cells.
Sprycel is currently approved in more than 60 countries for the treatment of adults with Ph+ ALL or Ph+ CML in chronic phase (CP-CML) who are resistant or intolerant to prior therapy, and in more than 50 countries for the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed Ph+ CP-CML. In 2017, Sprycel received its first pediatric indication when it became the first second-generation TKI approved for the treatment of patients one year of age and older with Ph+ CP-CML. Sprycel is also approved in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ ALL.
In Europe, both pediatric indications for Sprycel include the PFOS formulation, the approvals of which made Sprycel the first TKI with an approved powder formulation for administration in pediatric patients with Ph+ CP-CML and Ph+ ALL. The PFOS formulation is also approved for adult patients with Ph+ CP-CML who cannot swallow tablets.
U.S. FDA APPROVED INDICATIONS FOR SPRYCEL®
SPRYCEL® (dasatinib) is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with:
- Newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase
- Chronic, accelerated, or myeloid or lymphoid blast phase Ph+ CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including imatinib
- Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy
SPRYCEL is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients 1 year of age and older with:
- Ph+ CML in chronic phase
- Newly diagnosed Ph+ ALL in combination with chemotherapy
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
Treatment with SPRYCEL is associated with severe (NCI CTCAE Grade 3/4) thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia, which occur earlier and more frequently in patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL than in patients with chronic phase CML. Myelosuppression was reported in patients with normal baseline laboratory values as well as in patients with pre-existing laboratory abnormalities.
- In patients with chronic phase CML, perform complete blood counts (CBCs) every 2 weeks for 12 weeks, then every 3 months thereafter, or as clinically indicated
- In patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL, perform CBCs weekly for the first 2 months and then monthly thereafter, or as clinically indicated
- In pediatric patients with Ph+ ALL treated with SPRYCEL in combination with chemotherapy, perform CBCs prior to the start of each block of chemotherapy and as clinically indicated. During the consolidation blocks of chemotherapy, perform CBCs every 2 days until recovery
- Myelosuppression is generally reversible and usually managed by withholding SPRYCEL temporarily and/or dose reduction
- In clinical studies, myelosuppression may have also been managed by discontinuation of study therapy
- Hematopoietic growth factor has been used in patients with resistant myelosuppression
SPRYCEL can cause serious and fatal bleeding. In all CML or Ph+ ALL clinical studies, Grade ≥3 central nervous system (CNS) hemorrhages, including fatalities, occurred in <1% of patients receiving SPRYCEL. The incidence of Grade 3/4 hemorrhage occurred in 5.8% of adult patients and generally required treatment interruptions and transfusions. The incidence of Grade 5 hemorrhage occurred in 0.4% of adult patients. The most frequent site of hemorrhage was gastrointestinal.
- Most bleeding events in clinical studies were associated with severe thrombocytopenia
- In addition to causing thrombocytopenia in human subjects, dasatinib caused platelet dysfunction in vitro
- Concomitant medications that inhibit platelet function or anticoagulants may increase the risk of hemorrhage
SPRYCEL may cause fluid retention. After 5 years of follow-up in the adult randomized newly diagnosed chronic phase CML study (n=258), Grade 3/4 fluid retention was reported in 5% of patients, including 3% of patients with Grade 3/4 pleural effusion. In adult patients with newly diagnosed or imatinib resistant or intolerant chronic phase CML, grade 3/4 fluid retention occurred in 6% of patients treated with SPRYCEL at the recommended dose (n=548). In adult patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL treated with SPRYCEL at the recommended dose (n=304), grade 3/4 fluid retention was reported in 8% of patients, including grade 3/4 pleural effusion reported in 7% of patients. In pediatric patients with chronic phase CML, cases of Grade 1 or 2 fluid retention were reported in 10.3% of patients.
- Patients who develop symptoms of pleural effusion or other fluid retention, such as new or worsened dyspnea on exertion or at rest, pleuritic chest pain, or dry cough, should be evaluated promptly with a chest x-ray or additional diagnostic imaging as appropriate
- Fluid retention events were typically managed by supportive care measures that may include diuretics or short courses of steroids
- Severe pleural effusion may require thoracentesis and oxygen therapy
- Consider dose reduction or treatment interruption
SPRYCEL can cause cardiac dysfunction. After 5 years of follow-up in the randomized newly diagnosed chronic phase CML trial in adults (n=258), the following cardiac adverse reactions occurred:
- Cardiac ischemic events (3.9% dasatinib vs 1.6% imatinib), cardiac related fluid retention (8.5% dasatinib vs 3.9% imatinib), and conduction system abnormalities, most commonly arrhythmia and palpitations (7.0% dasatinib vs 5.0% imatinib). Two cases (0.8%) of peripheral arterial occlusive disease occurred with imatinib and 2 (0.8%) transient ischemic attacks occurred with dasatinib
Monitor patients for signs or symptoms consistent with cardiac dysfunction and treat appropriately.
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH):
SPRYCEL may increase the risk of developing PAH in adult and pediatric patients, which may occur any time after initiation, including after more than 1 year of treatment. Manifestations include dyspnea, fatigue, hypoxia, and fluid retention. PAH may be reversible on discontinuation of SPRYCEL.
- Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of underlying cardiopulmonary disease prior to initiating SPRYCEL and during treatment. If PAH is confirmed, SPRYCEL should be permanently discontinued
SPRYCEL may increase the risk of prolongation of QTc in patients including those with hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, patients with congenital long QT syndrome, patients taking antiarrhythmic medicines or other medicinal products that lead to QT prolongation, and cumulative high-dose anthracycline therapy
- Correct hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia prior to and during SPRYCEL administration
Severe Dermatologic Reactions:
Cases of severe mucocutaneous dermatologic reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme, have been reported in patients treated with SPRYCEL.
- Discontinue permanently in patients who experience a severe mucocutaneous reaction during treatment if no other etiology can be identified
Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS):
TLS has been reported in patients with resistance to prior imatinib therapy, primarily in advanced phase disease.
- Due to potential for TLS, maintain adequate hydration, correct uric acid levels prior to initiating therapy with SPRYCEL, and monitor electrolyte levels
- Patients with advanced stage disease and/or high tumor burden may be at increased risk and should be monitored more frequently
Based on limited human data, SPRYCEL can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Hydrops fetalis, fetal leukopenia, and fetal thrombocytopenia have been reported with maternal exposure to SPRYCEL. Transplacental transfer of dasatinib has been measured in fetal plasma and amniotic fluid at concentrations comparable to those in maternal plasma.
- Advise females of reproductive potential to avoid pregnancy, which may include the use of effective contraception, during treatment with SPRYCEL and for 30 days after the final dose
Effects on Growth and Development in Pediatric Patients:
In pediatric trials of SPRYCEL in chronic phase CML after at least 2 years of treatment, adverse reactions associated with bone growth and development were reported in 5 (5.2%) patients, one of which was severe in intensity (Growth Retardation Grade 3). These 5 cases included cases of epiphyses delayed fusion, osteopenia, growth retardation, and gynecomastia. Of these 5 cases, 1 case of osteopenia and 1 case of gynecomastia resolved during treatment.
Monitor bone growth and development in pediatric patients.
No data are available regarding the presence of dasatinib in human milk, the effects of the drug on the breastfed child, or the effects of the drug on milk production. However, dasatinib is present in the milk of lactating rats.
- Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing children from SPRYCEL, breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with SPRYCEL and for 2 weeks after the final dose
Effect of Other Drugs on Dasatinib
- Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors: The coadministration with strong CYP3A inhibitors may increase dasatinib concentrations. Increased dasatinib concentrations may increase the risk of toxicity. Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant administration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, consider a SPRYCEL dose reduction
- Grapefruit juice may increase plasma concentrations of SPRYCEL and should be avoided
- Strong CYP3A4 inducers: The coadministration of SPRYCEL with strong CYP3A inducers may decrease dasatinib concentrations. Decreased dasatinib concentrations may reduce efficacy. Consider alternative drugs with less enzyme induction potential. If concomitant administration of a strong CYP3A4 inducer cannot be avoided, consider a SPRYCEL dose increase
- St. John’s wort may decrease plasma concentrations of SPRYCEL and should be avoided
- Gastric Acid Reducing Agents: The coadministration of SPRYCEL with a gastric acid reducing agent may decrease the concentrations of dasatinib. Decreased dasatinib concentrations may reduce efficacy.
Do not administer H2 antagonists or proton pump inhibitors with SPRYCEL. Consider the use of antacids in place of H2 antagonists or proton pump inhibitors. Administer the antacid at least 2 hours prior to or 2 hours after the dose of SPRYCEL. Avoid simultaneous administration of SPRYCEL with antacids.
Common Adverse Reactions:
The safety data reflects exposure to SPRYCEL administered as single-agent therapy at all doses tested in clinical studies (n=2809) including 324 adult patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML, 2388 adult patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant chronic or advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL, and 97 pediatric patients with chronic phase CML.
The median duration of therapy in a total of 2712 SPRYCEL-treated adult patients was 19.2 months (range 0–93.2 months). Median duration of therapy in:
- 1618 adult patients with chronic phase CML was 29 months (range 0–92.9 months)
- Median duration for 324 adult patients in the newly diagnosed chronic phase CML trial was approximately 60 months
- 1094 adult patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL was 6.2 months (range 0–93.2 months)
In two non-randomized trials in 97 pediatric patients with chronic phase CML (51 patients newly diagnosed and 46 patients resistant or intolerant to previous treatment with imatinib), the median duration of therapy was 51.1 months (range 1.9 to 99.6 months).
In a multicohort study of SPRYCEL administered continuously in combination with multiagent chemotherapy in 81 pediatric patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ ALL, the median duration of therapy was 24 months (range 2 to 27 months).
In the newly diagnosed adult chronic phase CML trial, after a minimum of 60 months of follow-up, the cumulative discontinuation rate for 258 patients was 39%.
In the overall population of 2712 adult patients, 88% of patients experienced adverse reactions at some time, and 19% experienced adverse reactions leading to treatment discontinuation.
Among the 1618 adult patients with chronic phase CML, drug-related adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were reported in 329 (20.3%) patients.
- In the adult newly diagnosed chronic phase CML trial, drug was discontinued for adverse reactions in 16% of SPRYCEL-treated patients with a minimum of 60 months of follow-up
Among the 1094 patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL, drug-related adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were reported in 191 (17.5%) patients.
Among the 97 CML pediatric subjects, drug-related adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were reported in 1 patient (1%).
Patients ≥65 years are more likely to experience the commonly reported adverse reactions of fatigue, pleural effusion, diarrhea, dyspnea, cough, lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and appetite disturbance, and more likely to experience the less frequently reported adverse reactions of abdominal distention, dizziness, pericardial effusion, congestive heart failure, hypertension, pulmonary edema, and weight decrease, and should be monitored closely.
- In adult newly diagnosed chronic phase CML patients:
- Drug-related serious adverse reactions (SARs) were reported for 16.7% of patients. Serious adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients included pleural effusion (5%)
- Grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities included neutropenia (29%), thrombocytopenia (22%), anemia (13%), hypophosphatemia (7%), hypocalcemia (4%), elevated bilirubin (1%), and elevated creatinine (1%)
- In adult patients resistant or intolerant to prior imatinib therapy:
- Drug-related SARs were reported for 26.1% of SPRYCEL-treated patients treated at the recommended dose of 100 mg once daily in the randomized dose-optimization trial of patients with chronic phase CML resistant or intolerant to prior imatinib therapy. Serious adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients included pleural effusion (10%)
- Grade 3/4 hematologic laboratory abnormalities in chronic phase CML patients resistant or intolerant to prior imatinib therapy who received SPRYCEL 100 mg once daily with a minimum follow up of 60 months included neutropenia (36%), thrombocytopenia (24%), and anemia (13%). Other grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities included: hypophosphatemia (10%), and hypokalemia (2%)
- Among chronic phase CML patients with resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy, cumulative grade 3/4 cytopenias were similar at 2 and 5 years including: neutropenia (36% vs 36%), thrombocytopenia (23% vs 24%), and anemia (13% vs 13%)
- Grade 3/4 elevations of transaminases or bilirubin and Grade 3/4 hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia were reported in patients with all phases of CML
- Elevations in transaminases or bilirubin were usually managed with dose reduction or interruption
- Patients developing Grade 3/4 hypocalcemia during the course of SPRYCEL therapy often had recovery with oral calcium supplementation
- In pediatric subjects with Ph+ CML in chronic phase
- Drug-related SARs were reported for 14.4% of pediatric patients
- Adverse reactions associated with bone growth and development were reported in 5 (5.2%) of pediatric patients with chronic phase CML
- In the pediatric studies, the rates of laboratory abnormalities were consistent with the known profile for laboratory parameters in adults
- In pediatric subjects with Ph+ ALL who were administered SPRYCEL in combination with multiagent chemotherapy
- Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 3 patients (4%), all of which were due to infections
- Eight patients (10%) experienced adverse reactions leading to treatment discontinuation
- The most common serious adverse reactions (incidence ≥10%) were pyrexia, febrile neutropenia, mucositis, diarrhea, sepsis, hypotension, infections (bacterial, viral and fungal), hypersensitivity, vomiting, renal insufficiency, abdominal pain, and musculoskeletal pain
- Grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities (≥10%) included neutropenia (96%), thrombocytopenia (88%), anemia (82%), elevated SGPT (ALT) (47%), hypokalemia (40%), elevated SGOT (AST) (26%), hypocalcemia (19%), hyponatremia (19%), elevated bilirubin (11%), and hypophosphatemia (11%)
Most common adverse reactions (≥15%) in patients receiving SPRYCEL as single-agent therapy included myelosuppression, fluid retention events, diarrhea, headache, skin rash, hemorrhage, dyspnea, fatigue, nausea, and musculoskeletal pain.
Most common adverse reactions (≥30%) in pediatric patients receiving SPRYCEL in combination with chemotherapy included mucositis, febrile neutropenia, pyrexia, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, musculoskeletal pain, abdominal pain, cough, headache, rash, fatigue, constipation, arrhythmia, hypertension, edema, infections (bacterial, viral and fungal), hypotension, decreased appetite, hypersensitivity, dyspnea, epistaxis, peripheral neuropathy, and altered state of consciousness
Please see full Prescribing Information.
SPRYCEL® is a trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company.
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