Findings Released from Largest Real-World Data Analysis of Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients Receiving Direct Oral Anticoagulants
Published: Mar 11, 2018
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This retrospective observational analysis utilizing pre-specified endpoints included three 1:1 propensity score individually matched DOAC cohorts: apixaban vs. rivaroxaban (n=125,238), apixaban vs. dabigatran (n=54,192), and dabigatran vs. rivaroxaban (n=55,076). The analysis also revealed that in the dabigatran vs. rivaroxaban cohort, dabigatran was associated with a significantly lower rate of MB (HR:0.67, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.74, p=<0.001) and a non-significantly higher rate of S/SE (HR:1.18, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.43, p=0.080). It is important to note that, at this time, there are no head-to-head clinical trials comparing DOACs. Anticoagulants, including Eliquis, increase the risk of bleeding and can cause serious, potentially fatal, bleeding. Please see important safety information below for Eliquis, including BOXED WARNINGS.
“Most observational, real-world data analyses of direct oral anticoagulants have used single data sources; in this analysis, we pooled CMS Medicare data and four U.S. Managed Care claims databases, including both commercial and Medicare Advantage lives, covering in total more than 180 million beneficiaries annually1,2 – more than half of the U.S. population,” said Steven Deitelzweig, M.D., System Department Chair of Hospital Medicine, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, and one of the analysis’ primary investigators. “Being able to see patient claims from different data sets with good representation across the country may help decision making in clinical practice.”
Study Details: This was a retrospective observational cohort analysis of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients utilizing pre-specified endpoints and analyzed using propensity-score matching (PSM). It includes NVAF patients (n=162,707) from ARISTOPHANES (Anticoagulants for Reduction In STroke: Observational Pooled analysis on Health outcomes ANd Experience of patientS), an ongoing real-world data analysis initiative that now includes anonymized patient records from more than 300,000 patients. The analysis presented at ACC includes patients who initiated apixaban, rivaroxaban or dabigatran, from Jan. 1, 2013, to Sept. 30, 2015, pooled from 5 large databases, including CMS fee-for-service Medicare data, Truven MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounter and Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits Database, the IMS PharMetrics Plus™ Database, the Optum Clinformatics™ Data Mart, and the Humana Research Database. After 1:1 DOAC-DOAC PSM in each database, the resulting patient records were pooled. Patients were followed for a mean of six months. Cox models were used to evaluate the rates of S/SE and of MB across DOACs within one year of therapy initiation. Patients with NVAF were included regardless of the dose of DOACs used.
Limitations of Real-World Data Analyses and of ARISTOPHANES: Real-world data have the potential to supplement randomized controlled trial data by providing additional information about how a medicine performs in routine medical practice. Real-world data analyses have several limitations. For example, the source and type of data used may limit the generalizability of the results and of the endpoints. Observational real-world studies can only evaluate association and not causality. Due to these limitations, real-world data analyses cannot be used as stand-alone evidence to validate the efficacy and/or safety of a treatment. It is important to note that, at this time, there are no head-to-head clinical trials comparing direct oral anticoagulants.
In this analysis, although PSM was used to control for multiple confounders, there is still potential for residual bias. Claims for a filled prescription do not indicate that the medication was consumed or taken as prescribed. Also, medications filled over the counter or provided as samples are not captured in the claims data.
BMS-Pfizer Alliance Real-Word Data (RWD) Program: ARISTOPHANES is part of the Bristol-Myers Squibb-Pfizer Alliance global RWD analysis program, ACROPOLIS™ (Apixaban ExperienCe Through Real-WOrld POpuLatIon Studies), designed to generate additional evidence from routine clinical practice settings to further inform healthcare decision makers, including healthcare providers and payers. The ACROPOLIS program includes retrospective, outcomes-based analyses from over 16 databases around the world, including medical records, medical and pharmacy health insurance claims data, and national health data systems.
Analyses of real-world data allow for a broader understanding of patient outcomes associated with Eliquis outside of the clinical trial setting, as well as insight into other measures of healthcare delivery, such as hospitalization and costs.
Eliquis (apixaban) is an oral selective Factor Xa inhibitor. By inhibiting Factor Xa, a key blood clotting protein, Eliquis decreases thrombin generation and blood clot formation. Eliquis is approved for multiple indications in the U.S. based on efficacy and safety data from multiple Phase 3 clinical trials. Eliquis is a prescription medicine indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF); for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE), in patients who have undergone hip or knee replacement surgery; for the treatment of DVT and PE; and to reduce the risk of recurrent DVT and PE, following initial therapy.
ELIQUIS Important Safety Information
WARNING: (A) PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF ELIQUIS INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS, (B) SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA
(A) Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including ELIQUIS, increases the risk of thrombotic events. If anticoagulation with ELIQUIS is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant.
(B) Epidural or spinal hematomas may occur in patients treated with ELIQUIS who are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include:
- use of indwelling epidural catheters
- concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, other anticoagulants
- a history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures
- a history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery
- optimal timing between the administration of ELIQUIS and neuraxial procedures is not known
Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary.
Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or to be anticoagulated.
- Active pathological bleeding
- Severe hypersensitivity reaction to ELIQUIS (e.g., anaphylactic reactions)
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- Increased Risk of Thrombotic Events after Premature Discontinuation: Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including ELIQUIS, in the absence of adequate alternative anticoagulation increases the risk of thrombotic events. An increased rate of stroke was observed during the transition from ELIQUIS to warfarin in clinical trials in atrial fibrillation patients. If ELIQUIS is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant.
- Bleeding Risk: ELIQUIS increases the risk of bleeding and can cause serious, potentially fatal, bleeding.
- Concomitant use of drugs affecting hemostasis increases the risk of bleeding, including aspirin and other antiplatelet agents, other anticoagulants, heparin, thrombolytic agents, SSRIs, SNRIs, and NSAIDs.
- Advise patients of signs and symptoms of blood loss and to report them immediately or go to an emergency room. Discontinue ELIQUIS in patients with active pathological hemorrhage.
- There is no established way to reverse the anticoagulant effect of apixaban, which can be expected to persist for at least 24 hours after the last dose (i.e., about two half-lives). A specific antidote for ELIQUIS is not available.
- Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia or Puncture: Patients treated with ELIQUIS undergoing spinal/epidural anesthesia or puncture may develop an epidural or spinal hematoma which can result in long-term or permanent paralysis.
The risk of these events may be increased by the postoperative use of indwelling epidural catheters or the concomitant use of medicinal products affecting hemostasis. Indwelling epidural or intrathecal catheters should not be removed earlier than 24 hours after the last administration of ELIQUIS. The next dose of ELIQUIS should not be administered earlier than 5 hours after the removal of the catheter. The risk may also be increased by traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal puncture. If traumatic puncture occurs, delay the administration of ELIQUIS for 48 hours.
Monitor patients frequently and if neurological compromise is noted, urgent diagnosis and treatment is necessary. Physicians should consider the potential benefit versus the risk of neuraxial intervention in ELIQUIS patients.
- Prosthetic Heart Valves: The safety and efficacy of ELIQUIS have not been studied in patients with prosthetic heart valves and is not recommended in these patients.
- Acute PE in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients or Patients who Require Thrombolysis or Pulmonary Embolectomy: Initiation of ELIQUIS is not recommended as an alternative to unfractionated heparin for the initial treatment of patients with PE who present with hemodynamic instability or who may receive thrombolysis or pulmonary embolectomy.
- The most common and most serious adverse reactions reported with ELIQUIS were related to bleeding.
TEMPORARY INTERRUPTION FOR SURGERY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONS
- ELIQUIS should be discontinued at least 48 hours prior to elective surgery or invasive procedures with a moderate or high risk of unacceptable or clinically significant bleeding. ELIQUIS should be discontinued at least 24 hours prior to elective surgery or invasive procedures with a low risk of bleeding or where the bleeding would be noncritical in location and easily controlled. Bridging anticoagulation during the 24 to 48 hours after stopping ELIQUIS and prior to the intervention is not generally required. ELIQUIS should be restarted after the surgical or other procedures as soon as adequate hemostasis has been established.
- Combined P-gp and Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors: Inhibitors of P- glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) increase exposure to apixaban and increase the risk of bleeding. For patients receiving ELIQUIS doses of 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily, reduce the dose of ELIQUIS by 50% when ELIQUIS is coadministered with drugs that are combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, or ritonavir). In patients already taking 2.5 mg twice daily, avoid coadministration of ELIQUIS with combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.
Although clarithromycin is a combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitor,
pharmacokinetic data suggest that no dose adjustment is necessary with concomitant administration with Eliquis.
- Combined P-gp and Strong CYP3A4 Inducers: Avoid concomitant use of ELIQUIS with combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, St. John’s wort) because such drugs will decrease exposure to apixaban.
- Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents: Coadministration of antiplatelet agents, fibrinolytics, heparin, aspirin, and chronic NSAID use increases the risk of bleeding. APPRAISE-2, a placebo-controlled clinical trial of apixaban in high-risk post-acute coronary syndrome patients treated with aspirin or the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel, was terminated early due to a higher rate of bleeding with apixaban compared to placebo.
PREGNANCY CATEGORY B
- There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ELIQUIS in pregnant women. Treatment is likely to increase the risk of hemorrhage during pregnancy and delivery. ELIQUIS should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the mother and fetus.
Please see full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNINGS and
Medication Guide, available at www.bms.com.