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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Immunology - Infectious Diseases - Microbiology - Respiratory Medicine

Impaired Release of Antimicrobial Peptides into Nasal Fluid of Hyper-IgE and CVID Patients
Published: Tuesday, December 27, 2011
Author: Andreas Cederlund et al.

by Andreas Cederlund, Marie Olliver, Rokeya Sultana Rekha, Monica Lindh, Lennart Lindbom, Staffan Normark, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Jan Andersson, Birgitta Agerberth, Peter Bergman

Background

Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) often suffer from frequent respiratory tract infections. Despite standard treatment with IgG-substitution and antibiotics many patients do not improve significantly. Therefore, we hypothesized that additional immune deficits may be present among these patients.

Objective

To investigate if PID patients exhibit impaired production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in nasal fluid and a possible link between AMP-expression and Th17-cells.

Methods

Nasal fluid, nasopharyngeal swabs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from patients and healthy controls. AMP levels were measured in nasal fluid by Western blotting. Nasal swabs were cultured for bacteria. PBMCs were stimulated with antigen and the supernatants were assessed for IL-17A release by ELISA.

Results

In healthy controls and most patients, AMP levels in nasal fluid were increased in response to pathogenic bacteria. However, this increase was absent in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, stimulation of PBMCs revealed that both HIES and CVID patients exhibited an impaired production of IL-17A.

Conclusion

CVID and HIES patients appear to have a dysregulated AMP response to pathogenic bacteria in the upper respiratory tract, which could be linked to an aberrant Th17 cell response.

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