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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Biochemistry - Critical Care and Emergency Medicine - Diabetes and Endocrinology - Microbiology - Physiology - Public Health and Epidemiology

RLIP76, a Glutathione-Conjugate Transporter, Plays a Major Role in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome
Published: Tuesday, September 13, 2011
Author: Jyotsana Singhal et al.

by Jyotsana Singhal, Lokesh Nagaprashantha, Rit Vatsyayan, Sanjay Awasthi, Sharad S. Singhal


Characteristic hypoglycemia, hypotriglyceridemia, hypocholesterolemia, lower body mass, and fat as well as pronounced insulin-sensitivity of RLIP76-/- mice suggested to us the possibility that elevation of RLIP76 in response to stress could itself elicit metabolic syndrome (MSy). Indeed, if it were required for MSy, drugs used to treat MSy should have no effect on RLIP76-/- mice.

Research Design and Methods

Blood glucose (BG) and lipid measurements were performed in RLIP76+/+ and RLIP76-/- mice, using Ascensia Elite GlucometerĀ® for glucose and ID Labs kits for cholesterol and triglycerides assays. The ultimate effectors of gluconeogenesis are the three enzymes: PEPCK, F-1,6-BPase, and G6Pase, and their expression is regulated by PPAR? and AMPK. The activity of these enzymes was tested by protocols standardized by us. Expressions of RLIP76, PPARa, PPAR?, HMGCR, pJNK, pAkt, and AMPK were performed by Western-blot and tissue staining.


The concomitant activation of AMPK and PPAR? by inhibiting transport activity of RLIP76, despite inhibited activity of key glucocorticoid-regulated hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes like PEPCK, G6Pase and F-1,6-BP in RLIP76-/- mice, is a salient finding of our studies. The decrease in RLIP76 protein expression by rosiglitazone and metformin is associated with an up-regulation of PPAR? and AMPK.


All four drugs, rosiglitazone, metformin, gemfibrozil and atorvastatin failed to affect glucose and lipid metabolism in RLIP76-/- mice. Studies confirmed a model in which RLIP76 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of MSy and RLIP76 loss causes profound and global alterations of MSy signaling functions. RLIP76 is a novel target for single-molecule therapeutics for metabolic syndrome.