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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Immunology - Obstetrics

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Promotes a Sustained LPS-Induced NF-?B-Dependent Expression of CD55 in Human Monocytic THP-1 Cells
Published: Monday, November 12, 2012
Author: Michael G. Izban et al.

by Michael G. Izban, Bogdan J. Nowicki, Stella Nowicki

The vitamin D3 system imposes immunosuppressive effects on monocytic cells, in part, by inhibiting NF-?B-dependent expression of proinflammatory mediators. CD55, a cell surface complement regulatory protein that promotes protective and anti-inflammatory properties, is reportedly an NF-?B target gene transiently induced in monocytic cells by the bacterial endotoxin LPS. CD55 is elevated on white cells in women experiencing preterm labor (a pathophysiology commonly associated with bacterial infection) and failure to maintain CD55 was associated with subsequent preterm delivery. We examined the influence of vitamin D3 signaling on LPS-induced expression of CD55 in human monocytic THP-1 cells using quantitative PCR, immunoblot, immunohistochemistry, and NF-?B activation pathway inhibitors. Non-NF-?B targets CD14 and CD11b, which modulate bacterial surveillance and eradication, respectively, were also examined. LPS produced a rapid transient 1.6-fold increase in CD55 mRNA. 1,25-D3 alone did not affect CD55 mRNA expression within the first 48 h. However, in 1,25-D3 pretreated cells, LPS produced a >4-fold immediate and sustained increase in CD55 mRNA and protein expression, which was blocked by NF-?B inhibitors. Our results unexpectedly suggest that vitamin D3 signaling may promote an anti-inflammatory response through an NF-?B-dependent increase in CD55 expression. As expected, LPS or 1,25-D3 alone led to sustained increases in CD14 and CD11b expression. In 1,25-D3 pretreated cells, LPS differentially regulated protein expression - CD14 (21-fold increase) and CD11b (a transient 2-fold decrease) - principally at the posttranscriptional level. The coordinated temporal expression of CD55, CD14 and CD11b would contribute to an anti-inflammatory response by providing protection against complement-mediated cell lysis during pathogen recognition and eradication. Overall, the vitamin D3 system may play a role coordinating an anti-inflammatory response pattern of the host complement immune system. This may be particularly important when considering the high rates of preterm births in blacks, a population that exhibits reduced circulating vitamin D3 levels.