by Tadashi Miyamoto, Emi E. Nakayama, Masaru Yokoyama, Shiro Ibe, Shunpei Takehara, Ken Kono, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Massimo Pizzato, Jeremy Luban, Wataru Sugiura, Hironori Sato, Tatsuo Shioda
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 shows limited geographical distribution compared with HIV type 1. Although 8 genetic groups of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) have been described, recombinant viruses between these groups are rarely observed. Recently, three HIV-2 patients in Japan were described with rapidly progressive, acquired immunodeficiency. These patients were infected with an A/B inter-group recombinant designated CRF01_AB. Here, we characterize the capsid protein (CA) encoded by the viruses from these patients. HIV-2 CRF01_AB CA showed unique amino acid sequence almost equally distinct from group A and group B viruses. Notably, HIV-2 CRF01_AB CA showed potent resistance to human TRIM5a. In addition to the previously identified amino acid position 119 in the N-terminal domain of CA, we found that HIV-2 CRF01_AB-specific amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal domain also were necessary for resistance to human TRIM5a. These results indicate that retroviruses can evade TRIM5a by substitution at residues within the C-terminal domain of CA.