by Hai-Lan Piao, Song-Cun Wang, Yu Tao, Rui Zhu, Chan Sun, Qiang Fu, Mei-Rong Du, Da-Jin Li
Our previous study has demonstrated that cyclosporine A (CsA) administration in vivo induces Th2 bias at the maternal-fetal interface, leading to improved murine pregnancy outcomes. Here, we investigated how CsA treatment in vitro induced Th2 bias at the human maternal-fetal interface in early pregnancy. The cell co-culture in vitro in different combination of component cells at the maternal-fetal interface was established to investigate the regulation of CsA on cytokine production from the interaction of these cells. It was found that interferon (IFN)-? was produced only by decidual immune cells (DICs), and not by trophoblasts or decidual stromal cells (DSCs); all these cells secreted interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a. Treatment with CsA completely blocked IFN-? production in DICs and inhibited TNF-a production in all examined cells. CsA increased IL-10 and IL-4 production in trophoblasts co-cultured with DSCs and DICs although CsA treatment did not affect IL-10 or IL-4 production in any of the cells when cultured alone. These results suggest that CsA promotes Th2 bias at the maternal-fetal interface by increasing Th2-type cytokine production in trophoblasts with the aid of DSCs and DICs, while inhibiting Th1-type cytokine production in DICs and TNF-a production in all investigated cells. Our study might be useful in clinical therapeutics for spontaneous pregnancy wastage and other pregnancy complications.