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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Mental Health - Neurological Disorders - Pathology - Pediatrics and Child Health - Public Health and Epidemiology

Time Course Analysis of Motor Excitability in a Response Inhibition Task According to the Level of Hyperactivity and Impulsivity in Children with ADHD
Published: Tuesday, September 25, 2012
Author: Thomas Hoegl et al.

by Thomas Hoegl, Hartmut Heinrich, Wolfgang Barth, Friedrich Lösel, Gunther H. Moll, Oliver Kratz

Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of motor cortex, measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in a passive (resting) condition, has been suggested as a neurophysiological marker of hyperactivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to determine motor excitability in a go/nogo task at stages of response preparation, activation and suppression in children with ADHD, depending on the level of hyperactivity and impulsivity. Motor evoked potentials were recorded in 29 typically developing children and 43 children with ADHD (subdivided in two groups with higher and lower levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity; H/I-high and H/I-low). In the H/I-high group, SICI was markedly reduced in the resting condition and during response preparation. Though these children were able to increase SICI when inhibiting a response, SICI was still reduced compared to typically developing children. Interestingly, SICI at rest and during response activation were comparable, which may be associated with their hypermotoric behaviour. In the H/I-low group, response activation was accompanied by a pronounced decrease of SICI, indicating reduced motor control in the context of a fast motor response. In summary, different excitability patterns were obtained for the three groups allowing a better understanding of dysfunctional response activation and inhibition processes within the motor cortex in children with ADHD.