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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Immunology - Physiology - Urology

Identification of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Associated with Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer; The Roles of IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A
Published: Tuesday, September 04, 2012
Author: Se-Jung Lee et al.

by Se-Jung Lee, Eo-Jin Lee, Seon-Kyu Kim, Pildu Jeong, Young-Hwa Cho, Seok Joong Yun, Sangtae Kim, Gi-Young Kim, Yung Hyun Choi, Eun-Jong Cha, Wun-Jae Kim, Sung-Kwon Moon

We used gene expression profiling to identify inflammatory cytokines that correlate with bladder cancer development. Gene expression profiles of the tissue samples were investigated using cDNA microarrays that contained 103 non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC), 62 muscle invasive bladder cancers (MIBC), 58 samples of histologically normal-looking surrounding tissues, and 10 normal, healthy subjects who served as the control cohort for comparison. We grouped the data-sets according to biological characterizations and focused on immune response genes with at least 2-fold differential expression in MIBC vs. controls. The experimental data-set identified 36 immune-related genes that were significantly altered in MIBC samples. In addition, 10 genes were up-regulated and 26 genes were down-regulated in MIBC samples compared with the normal tissues. Among the 10 up-regulated molecules examined, the capacity for both wound-healing migration and invasion was enhanced in response to IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A in bladder cancer cell lines (253J and EJ cells), compared with untreated cells. The expression levels of IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A were increased in patients with MIBC. All 3 cytokines and their receptors were produced in bladder cancer cell lines, as determined by real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis and confocal immunofluorescence. Up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was found after IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A stimulation in both cell types. Moreover, an EMSA assay showed that treatment with IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A induced activation of the transcription factors NF-?B and AP-1 that regulate the MMP-9 promoter. Finally, activation of MAPK and Jak-Stat signaling was observed after the addition of IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A to bladder cancer cells. This study suggests the presence of specific inflammatory cytokine (IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A)-mediated association in bladder cancer development. All 3 cytokines may be important new molecular targets for the modulation of migration and invasion in bladder cancer.