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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Immunology - Physiology - Respiratory Medicine

Bronchoalveolar Lavage Results Are Independent of Season, Age, Gender and Collection Site
Published: Friday, August 31, 2012
Author: Helga H. Olsen et al.

by Helga H. Olsen, Johan Grunewald, Göran Tornling, C. Magnus Sköld, Anders Eklund


Clinical interpretation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid results is dependent on the availability of reference values for healthy individuals. Only a few studies have published such reference values and the applicability of results is restricted by small sample sizes and the limited representativeness of the study population. We aim to investigate the influence of age, gender, collection site and season on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid results and to establish reference values for use in clinical practice.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid data from 295 healthy never-smoking volunteers, investigated during 1990–2009, were analyzed retrospectively. 47 volunteers had 2–5 repeat lavages during the course of several years. Fluid recovery, total number of cells, cell concentration, and differential cell counts on cytospin prepared slides were recorded. Reference values, as represented by the 5th to the 95th percentile, were 72–96% for macrophages, 2–26% for lymphocytes, 0–4% for neutrophils and 0–1% for eosinophils. Basophils and mast cells were rare. When repeat lavages were performed, there was a relatively large intra-individual variability, mainly for macrophages and lymphocytes. An age dependent decrease of lavage fluid return was present, but there was no age dependent correlation with any of the other BALF parameters. The BALF cell parameters were independent of gender, season and site (lingula vs. middle lobe).


Our data show that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell differential count is independent of age, gender, season and collection site (RML or lingua). It therefore seems acceptable to use the same reference values for all never-smoking individuals.