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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Biochemistry - Oncology - Physiology - Rheumatology - Surgery

Vanin-1 Pantetheinase Drives Smooth Muscle Cell Activation in Post-Arterial Injury Neointimal Hyperplasia
Published: Wednesday, June 13, 2012
Author: K. Jagadeesha Dammanahalli et al.

by K. Jagadeesha Dammanahalli, Stephanie Stevens, Robert Terkeltaub

The pantetheinase vanin-1 generates cysteamine, which inhibits reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Vanin-1 promotes inflammation and tissue injury partly by inducing oxidative stress, and partly by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) expression. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contribute to neointimal hyperplasia in response to injury, by multiple mechanisms including modulation of oxidative stress and PPAR?. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that vanin-1 drives SMC activation and neointimal hyperplasia. We studied reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and functional responses to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the pro-oxidant diamide in cultured mouse aortic SMCs, and also assessed neointima formation after carotid artery ligation in vanin-1 deficiency. Vnn1-/- SMCs demonstrated decreased oxidative stress, proliferation, migration, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity in response to PDGF and/or diamide, with the effects on proliferation linked, in these studies, to both increased GSH levels and PPAR? expression. Vnn1-/- mice displayed markedly decreased neointima formation in response to carotid artery ligation, including decreased intima:media ratio and cross-sectional area of the neointima. We conclude that vanin-1, via dual modulation of GSH and PPAR?, critically regulates the activation of cultured SMCs and development of neointimal hyperplasia in response to carotid artery ligation. Vanin-1 is a novel potential therapeutic target for neointimal hyperplasia following revascularization.
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