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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Immunology - Pharmacology - Physiology - Rheumatology

Procyanidin B3 Prevents Articular Cartilage Degeneration and Heterotopic Cartilage Formation in a Mouse Surgical Osteoarthritis Model
Published: Tuesday, May 22, 2012
Author: Hailati Aini et al.

by Hailati Aini, Hiroki Ochi, Munetaka Iwata, Atsushi Okawa, Daisuke Koga, Mutsumi Okazaki, Atsushi Sano, Yoshinori Asou

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease in the elderly due to an imbalance in cartilage degradation and synthesis. Heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs when ectopic masses of endochondral bone form within the soft tissues around the joints and is triggered by inflammation of the soft tissues. Procyanidin B3 (B3) is a procyanidin dimer that is widely studied due to its high abundance in the human diet and antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the role of B3 isolated from grape seeds in the maintenance of chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. We observed that B3 inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in primary chondrocytes, suppressed H2O2- or IL-1ß-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production, and prevented IL-1ß-induced suppression of chondrocyte differentiation marker gene expression in primary chondrocytes. Moreover, B3 treatment enhanced the early differentiation of ATDC5 cells. To examine whether B3 prevents cartilage destruction in vivo, OA was surgically induced in C57BL/6J mice followed by oral administration of B3 or vehicle control. Daily oral B3 administration protected articular cartilage from OA and prevented chondrocyte apoptosis in surgically-induced OA joints. Furthermore, B3 administration prevented heterotopic cartilage formation near the surgical region. iNOS protein expression was enhanced in the synovial tissues and the pseudocapsule around the surgical region in OA mice fed a control diet, but was reduced in mice that received B3. Together, these data indicated that in the OA model, B3 prevented OA progression and heterotopic cartilage formation, at least in a part through the suppression of iNOS. These results support the potential therapeutic benefits of B3 for treatment of human OA and heterotopic ossification.