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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Immunology - Rheumatology

Impact of Rituximab on Immunoglobulin Concentrations and B Cell Numbers after Cyclophosphamide Treatment in Patients with ANCA-Associated Vasculitides
Published: Monday, May 21, 2012
Author: Nils Venhoff et al.

by Nils Venhoff, Nora M. Effelsberg, Ulrich Salzer, Klaus Warnatz, Hans Hartmut Peter, Dirk Lebrecht, Michael Schlesier, Reinhard E. Voll, Jens Thiel

Objective

To assess the impact of immunosuppressive therapy with cyclophosphamide (CYC) and rituximab (RTX) on serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and B lymphocyte counts in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAVs).

Methods

Retrospective analysis of Ig concentrations and peripheral B cell counts in 55 AAV patients.

Results

CYC treatment resulted in a decrease in Ig levels (median; interquartile range IQR) from IgG 12.8 g/L (8.15-15.45) to 9.17 g/L (8.04-9.90) (p?=?0.002), IgM 1.05 g/L (0.70-1.41) to 0.83 g/L (0.60-1.17) (p?=?0.046) and IgA 2.58 g/L (1.71-3.48) to 1.58 g/L (1-31-2.39) (p?=?0.056) at a median follow-up time of 4 months. IgG remained significantly below the initial value at 14.5 months and 30 months analyses. Subsequent RTX treatment in patients that had previously received CYC resulted in a further decline in Ig levels from pre RTX IgG 9.84 g/L (8.71-11.60) to 7.11 g/L (5.75-8.77; p?=?0.007), from pre RTX IgM 0.84 g/L (0.63-1.18) to 0.35 g/L (0.23-0.48; p<0.001) and from pre RTX IgA 2.03 g/L (1.37-2.50) to IgA 1.62 g/L (IQR 0.84-2.43; p?=?0.365) 14 months after RTX. Treatment with RTX induced a complete depletion of B cells in all patients. After a median observation time of 20 months median B lymphocyte counts remained severely suppressed (4 B-cells/µl, 1.25-9.5, p<0.001). Seven patients (21%) that had been treated with CYC followed by RTX were started on Ig replacement because of severe bronchopulmonary infections and serum IgG concentrations below 5 g/L.

Conclusions

In patients with AAVs, treatment with CYC leads to a decline in immunoglobulin concentrations. A subsequent RTX therapy aggravates the decline in serum immunoglobulin concentrations and results in a profoundly delayed B cell repopulation. Surveying patients with AAVs post CYC and RTX treatment for serum immunoglobulin concentrations and persisting hypogammaglobulinemia is warranted.

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