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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Infectious Diseases - Obstetrics - Public Health and Epidemiology

Effectiveness of a Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Programme in an Urban Hospital in Angola
Published: Monday, April 30, 2012
Author: Cristina Lussiana et al.

by Cristina Lussiana, Sofia Vanda Lôa Clemente, Angelo Ghelardi, Magda Lonardi, Ivan Alejandro Pulido Tarquino, Marco Floridia


Antiretroviral therapy is effective in reducing rates of mother-to child transmission of HIV to low levels in resource-limited contexts but the applicability and efficacy of these programs in the field are scarcely known. In order to explore such issues, we performed a descriptive study on retrospective data from hospital records of HIV-infected pregnant women who accessed in 2007–2010 the Luanda Municipal Hospital service for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). The main outcome measure was infant survival and HIV transmission. Our aim was to evaluate PMTCT programme in a local hospital setting in Africa.


Data for 104 pregnancies and 107 infants were analysed. Sixty-eight women (65.4%) had a first visit before or during pregnancy and received combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) in pregnancy. The remaining 36 women (34.6%) presented after delivery and received no ART during pregnancy. Across a median cohort follow-up time of 73 weeks, mortality among women with and without ART in pregnancy was 4.4% and 16.7%, respectively (death hazard ratio: 0.30, 95% CI 0.07–1.20, p?=?0.089). The estimated rates of HIV transmission or death in the infants over a median follow up time of 74 weeks were 8.5% with maternal ART during pregnancy and 38.9% without maternal ART during pregnancy. Following adjustment for use of oral zidovudine in the newborn and exposure to maternal milk, no ART in pregnancy remained associated with a 5-fold higher infant risk of HIV transmission or death (adjusted odds ratio: 5.13, 95% CI: 1.31–20.15, p?=?0.019).


Among the women and infants adhering to the PMTCT programme, HIV transmission and mortality were low. However, many women presented too late for PMTCT, and about 20% of infants did not complete follow up. This suggests the need of targeted interventions that maintain the access of mothers and infants to prevention and care services for HIV.