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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Critical Care and Emergency Medicine - Immunology

MAPK Signaling Drives Inflammation in LPS-Stimulated Cardiomyocytes: The Route of Crosstalk to G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
Published: Friday, November 30, 2012
Author: W. Joshua Frazier et al.

by W. Joshua Frazier, Jianjing Xue, Wendy A. Luce, Yusen Liu

Profound cardiovascular dysfunction is an important cause of mortality from septic shock. The molecular underpinnings of cardiac dysfunction during the inflammatory surge of early sepsis are not fully understood. MAPKs are important signal transducers mediating inflammation whereas G-protein signaling pathways modulate the cardiac response to stress. Using H9c2 cardiomyocytes, we investigated the interaction of MAPK and G-protein signaling in a sepsis model to test the hypothesis that the cardiomyocyte inflammatory response is controlled by MAPKs via G-protein-mediated events. We found that LPS stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production was markedly exacerbated by siRNA knockdown of the MAPK negative regulator Mkp-1. Cytokine production was blunted when cells were treated with p38 inhibitor. Two important cellular signaling molecules typically regulated by G-protein-coupled receptors, cAMP and PKC activity, were also stimulated by LPS and inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-6, through a process regulated by Mkp-1 and p38. Interestingly, neutralizing antibodies against Gas and Gaq blocked the increase in cellular cAMP and PKC activation, respectively, in response to inflammatory stimuli, indicating a critical role of G-protein coupled receptors in this process. LPS stimulation increased COX-2 in H9c2 cells, which also express prostaglandin receptors. Blockade of G-protein-coupled EP4 prostaglandin receptor by AH 23848 prevented LPS-induced cAMP increase. These data implicate MAPKs and G-proteins in the cardiomyocyte inflammatory response to LPS as well as crosstalk via COX-2-generated PGE2. These data add to our understanding of the pathogenesis of septic shock and have the potential to guide the selection of future therapeutics.