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Critical Care and Emergency Medicine - Immunology - Nephrology - Urology


Amelioration of Acute Kidney Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome by an Aldose Reductase Inhibitor, Fidarestat
Published: Thursday, January 12, 2012
Author: Kazunori Takahashi et al.

by Kazunori Takahashi, Hiroki Mizukami, Kosuke Kamata, Wataru Inaba, Noriaki Kato, Chihiro Hibi, Soroku Yagihashi

Background

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is a fatal disease because of multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury is a serious complication of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and its genesis is still unclear posing a difficulty for an effective treatment. Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor is recently found to suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac failure and its lethality. We studied the effects of AR inhibitor on LPS-induced acute kidney injury and its mechanism.

Methods

Mice were injected with LPS and the effects of AR inhibitor (Fidarestat 32 mg/kg) before or after LPS injection were examined for the mortality, severity of renal failure and kidney pathology. Serum concentrations of cytokines (interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-a) and their mRNA expressions in the lung, liver, spleen and kidney were measured. We also evaluated polyol metabolites in the kidney.

Results

Mortality rate within 72 hours was significantly less in LPS-injected mice treated with AR inhibitor both before (29%) and after LPS injection (40%) than untreated mice (90%). LPS-injected mice showed marked increases in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and cytokines, and AR inhibitor treatment suppressed the changes. LPS-induced acute kidney injury was associated with vacuolar degeneration and apoptosis of renal tubular cells as well as infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. With improvement of such pathological findings, AR inhibitor treatment suppressed the elevation of cytokine mRNA levels in multiple organs and renal sorbitol accumulation.

Conclusion

AR inhibitor treatment ameliorated LPS-induced acute kidney injury, resulting in the lowered mortality.

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