by Lotta von Boehmer, Lukas Keller, Ashkan Mortezavi, Maurizio Provenzano, Giovanni Sais, Thomas Hermanns, Tullio Sulser, Achim A. Jungbluth, Lloyd J. Old, Glen Kristiansen, Maries van den Broek, Holger Moch, Alexander Knuth, Peter J. Wild
The cancer-testis (CT) family of antigens is expressed in a variety of malignant neoplasms. In most cases, no CT antigen is found in normal tissues, except in testis, making them ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy. A comprehensive analysis of CT antigen expression has not yet been reported in prostate cancer. MAGE-C2/CT-10 is a novel CT antigen. The objective of this study was to analyze extent and prognostic significance of MAGE-C2/CT10 protein expression in prostate cancer. 348 prostate carcinomas from consecutive radical prostatectomies, 29 castration-refractory prostate cancer, 46 metastases, and 45 benign hyperplasias were immunohistochemically analyzed for MAGE-C2/CT10 expression using tissue microarrays. Nuclear MAGE-C2/CT10 expression was identified in only 3.3% primary prostate carcinomas. MAGE-C2/CT10 protein expression was significantly more frequent in metastatic (16.3% positivity) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (17% positivity; p<0.001). Nuclear MAGE-C2/CT10 expression was identified as predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (p?=?0.015), which was independent of preoperative PSA, Gleason score, tumor stage, and surgical margin status in multivariate analysis (p<0.05). MAGE-C2/CT10 expression in prostate cancer correlates with the degree of malignancy and indicates a higher risk for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Further, the results suggest MAGE-C2/CT10 as a potential target for adjuvant and palliative immunotherapy in patients with prostate cancer.