by Mar Pujades-Rodríguez, Emmanuelle Dantony, Loretxu Pinoges, René Ecochard, Jean-François Etard, Esther Carrillo-Casas, Elisabeth Szumilin, for the AIDS Working Group of Médecins Sans Frontières
To compare the incidence and timing of toxicity associated with the use of a reduced dose of stavudine from 40 to 30 mg in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment and to investigate associated risk factors. Methods
Multicohort study including 23 HIV programs in resource-limited countries. Adults enrolled between January 2005 and December 2009. Four-year rates of all-cause and stavudine-specific toxicity were estimated. Multilevel mixed-effect Poisson and accelerated failure models were used to investigate factors associated with toxicity and timing of diagnosis. Findings
A total of 48,785 patients contributed 62,505 person-years of follow-up. Rate of all-cause toxicity was 7.80 (95%CI 7.59–8.03) per 100 person-years, but varied greatly across sites (range 0.41–21.76). Patients treated with stavudine 40 mg had higher rates of toxicity (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 1.18, 95%CI 1.06–1.30 during the first year of ART; and 1.51, 95%CI 1.32–1.71 during the second year). Women, older age, initial advanced clinical stage, and low CD4 count were associated with increased toxicity rate ratios. Timing of lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy diagnosis were 12% and 13% shorter, respectively, in patients treated with stavudine 40 mg than in those receiving 30 mg stavudine dose (P?=?0.03 and 0.07, respectively). Insterpretation
Higher rates of drug-related toxicity were reported in patients receiving stavudine 40 mg compared with 30 mg, and the time to toxicity diagnosis was shorter in patients treated with the higher dose. Higher rates of toxicity were observed during the first two years of ART.