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Infectious Diseases - Nephrology - Urology

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated to Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV-Infected Patients on HAART and Undetectable Viral Load in Brazil
Published: Wednesday, October 12, 2011
Author: Andréia M. Menezes et al.

by Andréia M. Menezes, Jorge Torelly, Lúcia Real, Mônica Bay, Julia Poeta, Eduardo Sprinz


To determine the prevalence and associated factors with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a cohort of HIV-positive individuals with undetectable viral load on HAART.


From March, 2009 to September 2009, 213 individuals between 18-70 years, period on HAART =12 months, viral load < 50 copies/mm3, and CD4 = 200 cells/mm3, were consecutively enrolled at the outpatient clinic of Hospital de Clínicas, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Exclusion criteria were obesity, malnourishment, amputee, paraplegic, previous history of renal disease, pregnancy and hepatic insufficiency. Renal function was determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) assessed by the modification of diet in renal disease. CKD was defined as an eGFR less or equal than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, for a period of at least 3 months. Poisson regression was used to determine factors associated with CKD.


CKD was diagnosed in 8.4% of the population, and after adjustment, the risk factors were hypertension (RR?=?3.88, 95%CI, 1.84 - 8.16), time on HAART (RR?=?1.15, 95%CI,1.03–1.27) and tenofovir exposure (RR?=?2.25, 95%CI, 1.04–4.95). Higher weight (RR?=?,0.88 95%CI, 0.82–0.96) was associated to normal function.


CKD was a common finding in this cohort of patients and was related to hypertension, time on HAART and tenofovir exposure. We suggest a more frequent monitoring of renal function, especially for those with risk factors to early identify renal impairment.