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Mental Health - Pediatrics and Child Health - Public Health and Epidemiology

Reliability and Validity of the KIPPPI: An Early Detection Tool for Psychosocial Problems in Toddlers
Published: Wednesday, November 21, 2012
Author: Ingrid Kruizinga et al.

by Ingrid Kruizinga, Wilma Jansen, Carolien L. de Haan, Hein Raat


The KIPPPI (Brief Instrument Psychological and Pedagogical Problem Inventory) is a Dutch questionnaire that measures psychosocial and pedagogical problems in 2-year olds and consists of a KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale, and Autonomy scale. This study examined the reliability, validity, screening accuracy and clinical application of the KIPPPI.


Parents of 5959 2-year-old children in the Rotterdam area, the Netherlands, were invited to participate in the study. Parents of 3164 children (53.1% of all invited parents) completed the questionnaire. The internal consistency was evaluated and in subsamples the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with regard to the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Discriminative validity was evaluated by comparing scores of parents who worried about their child’s upbringing and parent’s that did not. Screening accuracy of the KIPPPI was evaluated against the CBCL by calculating the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The clinical application was evaluated by the relation between KIPPPI scores and the clinical decision made by the child health professionals.


Psychometric properties of the KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale and Autonomy scale were respectively: Cronbach’s alphas: 0.88, 0.86, 0.83, 0.58. Test-retest correlations: 0.80, 0.76, 0.73, 0.60. Concurrent validity was as hypothesised. The KIPPPI was able to discriminate between parents that worried about their child and parents that did not. Screening accuracy was high (>0.90) for the KIPPPI Total score and for the Wellbeing scale. The KIPPPI scale scores and clinical decision of the child health professional were related (p<0.05), indicating a good clinical application.


The results in this large-scale study of a diverse general population sample support the reliability, validity and clinical application of the KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale and Competence scale. Also, the screening accuracy of the KIPPPI Total score and Wellbeing scale were supported. The Autonomy scale needs further study.