by Charlotte Giwercman Carson, Morten Arendt Rasmussen, Jacob P. Thyssen, Torkil Menné, Hans Bisgaard
Filaggrin null mutations result in impaired skin barrier functions, increase the risk of early onset atopic dermatitis and lead to a more severe and chronic disease. We aimed to characterize the clinical presentation and course of atopic dermatitis associated with filaggrin mutations within the first 7 years of life. Method
The COPSAC cohort is a prospective, clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born to mothers with a history of asthma followed during their first 7 years of life with scheduled visits every 6 months, as well as visits for acute exacerbations of dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis was defined in accordance with international guidelines and described at every visit using 35 predefined localizations and 10 different characteristics. Results
A total of 170 (43%) of 397 Caucasian children developed atopic dermatitis. The R501X and/or 2282del4 filaggrin null mutations were present in 26 (15%) of children with atopic dermatitis and were primarily associated with predilection to exposed skin areas (especially the cheeks and back of the hands) and an up-regulation of both acute and chronic dermatitis. Furthermore, we found the filaggrin mutations to be associated with a higher number of unscheduled visits (3.6 vs. 2.7; p?=?0.04) and more severe (moderate-severe SCORAD 44% vs. 31%; p?=?0.14), and widespread dermatitis (10% vs. 6% of the body area, p<0.001) with an earlier age at onset (246 vs. 473 days, p<0.0001) compared to wild-type. Conclusion
In children, filaggrin mutations seem to define a specific endotype of atopic dermatitis primarily characterized by predilection to exposed areas of the body, in particular hands and cheeks, and an up-regulation in both acute and chronic morphological markers. Secondary, this endotype is characterized by an early onset of dermatitis and a more severe course, with more generalized dermatitis resulting in more frequent medical consultations.