by Kim G. Harley, Karen Huen, Raul Aguilar Schall, Nina T. Holland, Asa Bradman, Dana Boyd Barr, Brenda Eskenazi
Epidemiologic studies suggest that maternal organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure is associated with poorer fetal growth, but findings are inconsistent. We explored whether paraoxonase (PON1), a key enzyme involved in detoxification of OPs, could be an effect modifier in this association. Methods
The study population included 470 pregnant women enrolled in the CHAMACOS Study, a longitudinal cohort study of mothers and children living in an agricultural region of California. We analyzed urine samples collected from mothers twice during pregnancy for dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides. We analyzed maternal and fetal (cord) blood samples for PON1 genotype (PON1192 and PON1-108) and enzyme activity (paraoxonase and arylesterase). Infant birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age were obtained from medical records. Results
Infants' PON1 genotype and activity were associated with birth outcome, but mothers' were not. Infants with the susceptible PON1-108TT genotype had shorter gestational age (ß?=?-0.5 weeks, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -0.9, 0.0) and smaller head circumference (ß?=?-0.4 cm, 95% CI: -0.7, 0.0) than those with the PON1-108CC genotype. Infants' arylesterase and paraoxonase activity were positively associated with gestational age. There was some evidence of effect modification with DAPs: maternal DAP concentrations were associated with shorter gestational age only among infants of the susceptible PON1-108TT genotype (p-valueinteraction?=?0.09). However, maternal DAP concentrations were associated with larger birth weight (p-valueinteraction?=?0.06) and head circumference (p-valueinteraction<0.01) in infants with non-susceptible genotypes. Conclusions
Infants whose PON1 genotype and enzyme activity levels suggested that they might be more susceptible to the effects of OP pesticide exposure had decreased fetal growth and length of gestation. PON1 may be another factor contributing to preterm or low birth weight birth.