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Biochemistry - Immunology - Oncology - Surgery

TLR-4 Signalling Accelerates Colon Cancer Cell Adhesion via NF-?B Mediated Transcriptional Up-Regulation of Nox-1
Published: Thursday, October 11, 2012
Author: D. Peter O'Leary et al.

by D. Peter O'Leary, Lavinia Bhatt, John F. Woolley, David R. Gough, Jiang H. Wang, Thomas G. Cotter, H. Paul Redmond

Surgery induced inflammation is a potent promoter of tumour recurrence and metastasis in colorectal cancer. The recently discovered family of Nox enzymes represent a major source of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are now heavily implicated in tumour cell metastasis. Interestingly, Nox enzymes can be ‘purposefully’ activated by inflammatory cytokines and growth factors which are present in abundance in the peri-operative window. As colon cancer cells express Nox enzymes and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), we hypothesised that LPS may potentiate the ability of colon cancer cells to metastasise via Nox enzyme mediated redox signalling. In support of this hypothesis, this paper demonstrates that LPS induces a significant, transient increase of endogenous ROS in SW480, SW620 and CT-26 colon cancer cells. This increase in LPS-induced ROS activity is completely abrogated by a Nox inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), Nox1 siRNA and an NF-?B inhibitor, Dihydrochloride. A significant increase in Nox1 and Nox2 protein expression occurs following LPS treatment. Inhibition of NF-?B also attenuates the increase of Nox1 and Nox2 protein expression. The sub-cellular location of LPS-induced ROS generation lies mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum. LPS activates the PI3K/Akt pathway via Nox generated ROS and this signal is inhibited by DPI. This LPS activated Nox mechanism facilitates a significant increase in SW480 colon cancer cell adhesion to collagen I, which is inhibited by DPI, Nox1 siRNA and a PI3K inhibitor. Altogether, these data suggest that the LPS-Nox1 redox signalling axis plays a crucial role in facilitation of colon cancer cell adhesion, thus increasing the metastatic potential of colon cancer cells. Nox1 may represent a valuable target in which to prevent colon cancer metastasis.