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Immunology - Physiology - Respiratory Medicine

Effet of Combined Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Nanoparticle Exposure on Lung Function During Ovalbumin Sensitization in Brown Norway Rat
Published: Friday, September 28, 2012
Author: Skander Layachi et al.

by Skander Layachi, Françoise Rogerieux, Franck Robidel, Ghislaine Lacroix, Sam Bayat

The interaction of particulate and gaseous pollutants in their effects on the severity of allergic inflammation and airway responsiveness are not well understood. We assessed the effect of exposure to NO2 in the presence or absence of repetitive treatment with carbon nanoparticle (CNP) during allergen sensitization and challenges in Borwn-Norway (BN) rat, in order to assess their interactions on lung function and airway responses (AR) to allergen and methacholine (MCH), end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cellular content, serum and BALF cytokine levels and histological changes. Animals were divided into the following groups (n?=?6): Control; CNP (Degussa-FW2): 13 nm, 0.5 mg/kg instilled intratracheally ×3 at 7-day intervals; OVA: ovalbumin-sensitised; OVA+CNP: both sensitized and exposed to CNP. Rats were divided into equal groups exposed either to air or to NO2, 10 ppm, 6 h/d, 5d/wk for 4 weeks. Exposure to NO2, significantly enhanced lung inflammation and airway reactivity, with a significantly larger effect in animals sensitized to allergen, which was related to a higher expression of TH1 and TH2-type cytokines. Conversely, exposure to NO2 in animals undergoing repeated tracheal instillation of CNP alone, increased BALF neutrophilia and enhanced the expression of TH1 cytokines: TNF-a and IFN-?, but did not show an additive effect on airway reactivity in comparison to NO2 alone. The exposure to NO2 combined with CNP treatment and allergen sensitization however, unexpectedly resulted in a significant decrease in both airway reactivity to allergen and to methacholine, and a reduction in TH2-type cytokines compared to allergen sensitization alone. EELV was significantly reduced with sensitization, CNP treatment or both. These data suggest an immunomodulatory effect of repeated tracheal instillation of CNP on the proinflammatory effects of NO2 exposure in sensitized BN rat. Furthermore, our findings suggest that NO2, CNP and OVA sensitization may significantly slow overall lung growth in parenchymally mature animals.