by Francesco Lodola, Umberto Laforenza, Elisa Bonetti, Dmitry Lim, Silvia Dragoni, Cinzia Bottino, Hwei Ling Ong, Germano Guerra, Carlo Ganini, Margherita Massa, Mariangela Manzoni, Indu S. Ambudkar, Armando A. Genazzani, Vittorio Rosti, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Franco Tanzi, Francesco Moccia, Camillo Porta
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may be recruited from bone marrow to sustain tumor vascularisation and promote the metastatic switch. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EPC proliferation and tubulogenesis could outline novel targets for alternative anti-angiogenic treatments. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), which is activated by a depletion of the intracellular Ca2+ pool, regulates the growth of human EPCs, where is mediated by the interaction between the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-sensor, Stim1, and the plasmalemmal Ca2+ channel, Orai1. As oncogenesis may be associated to the capability of tumor cells to grow independently on Ca2+ influx, it is important to assess whether SOCE regulates EPC-dependent angiogenesis also in tumor patients. Methodology/Principal Findings
The present study employed Ca2+ imaging, recombinant sub-membranal and mitochondrial aequorin, real-time polymerase chain reaction, gene silencing techniques and western blot analysis to investigate the expression and the role of SOCE in EPCs isolated from peripheral blood of patients affected by renal cellular carcinoma (RCC; RCC-EPCs) as compared to control EPCs (N-EPCs). SOCE, activated by either pharmacological (i.e. cyclopiazonic acid) or physiological (i.e. ATP) stimulation, was significantly higher in RCC-EPCs and was selectively sensitive to BTP-2, and to the trivalent cations, La3+ and Gd3+. Furthermore, 2-APB enhanced thapsigargin-evoked SOCE at low concentrations, whereas higher doses caused SOCE inhibition. Conversely, the anti-angiogenic drug, carboxyamidotriazole (CAI), blocked both SOCE and the intracellular Ca2+ release. SOCE was associated to the over-expression of Orai1, Stim1, and transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) at both mRNA and protein level The intracellular Ca2+ buffer, BAPTA, BTP-2, and CAI inhibited RCC-EPC proliferation and tubulogenesis. The genetic suppression of Stim1, Orai1, and TRPC1 blocked CPA-evoked SOCE in RCC-EPCs. Conclusions
SOCE is remodelled in EPCs from RCC patients and stands out as a novel molecular target to interfere with RCC vascularisation due to its ability to control proliferation and tubulogenesis.