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Immunology - Oncology - Urology

Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) Slows Cancer Development but Increases Metastases in TRAMP Prostate Cancer Prone Mice
Published: Monday, August 27, 2012
Author: Yasmin Husaini et al.

by Yasmin Husaini, Min Ru Qiu, Glen P. Lockwood, Xu Wei Luo, Ping Shang, Tamara Kuffner, Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai, Lele Jiang, Pamela J. Russell, David A. Brown, Samuel N. Breit

Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15), a divergent member of the TGF-ß superfamily, is over-expressed by many common cancers including those of the prostate (PCa) and its expression is linked to cancer outcome. We have evaluated the effect of MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression on PCa development and spread in the TRAMP transgenic model of spontaneous prostate cancer. TRAMP mice were crossed with MIC-1/GDF15 overexpressing mice (MIC-1fms) to produce syngeneic TRAMPfmsmic-1 mice. Survival rate, prostate tumor size, histopathological grades and extent of distant organ metastases were compared. Metastasis of TC1-T5, an androgen independent TRAMP cell line that lacks MIC-1/GDF15 expression, was compared by injecting intravenously into MIC-1fms and syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. Whilst TRAMPfmsmic-1 survived on average 7.4 weeks longer, had significantly smaller genitourinary (GU) tumors and lower PCa histopathological grades than TRAMP mice, more of these mice developed distant organ metastases. Additionally, a higher number of TC1-T5 lung tumor colonies were observed in MIC-1fms mice than syngeneic WT C57BL/6 mice. Our studies strongly suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 has complex actions on tumor behavior: it limits local tumor growth but may with advancing disease, promote metastases. As MIC-1/GDF15 is induced by all cancer treatments and metastasis is the major cause of cancer treatment failure and cancer deaths, these results, if applicable to humans, may have a direct impact on patient care.