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PLoS By Category | Recent PLoS Articles
Urology - Virology

XMRV Induces Cell Migration, Cytokine Expression and Tumor Angiogenesis: Are 22Rv1 Cells a Suitable Prostate Cancer Model?
Published: Friday, July 27, 2012
Author: Kristin Stieler et al.

by Kristin Stieler, Udo Schumacher, Andrea Kristina Horst, Nicole Fischer

22Rv1 is a common prostate cancer cell line used in xenograft mouse experiments as well as in vitro cell culture assays to study aspects of prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Recently, this cell line was shown to harbor multiple copies of a gammaretrovirus, called XMRV, integrated in its genome. While the original prostate cancer xenograft CWR22 is free of any retrovirus, subsequently generated cell lines 22Rv1 and CWR-R1, carry this virus and additionally shed infectious gammaretroviral particles in their supernatant. Although XMRV most likely was generated by recombination events in cell culture this virus has been demonstrated to infect human cells in vitro and 22Rv1 as well as CWR-R1 cells are now considered biosafety 2 reagents. Here, we demonstrate that 22Rv1 cells with reduced retroviral transcription show reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased necrosis of the primary tumor derived from xenografted cells in scid mice when compared to the parental cell line. The presence of XMRV transcripts significantly increases secretion of osteopontin (OPN), CXCL14, IL13 and TIMP2 in 22Rv1 cells. Furthermore, these data are supported by in vitro cell invasion and differentiation assays. Collectively, our data suggest that the presence of XMRV transcripts at least partially contributes to 22Rv1 characteristics observed in vitro and in vivo with regard to migration, invasion and tumor angiogenesis. We propose that data received with 22Rv1 cells or equivalent cells carrying xenotropic gammaretroviruses should be carefully controlled including other prostate cancer cell lines tested for viral sequences.
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