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Critical Care and Emergency Medicine - Immunology - Nephrology

A Multicentre Study of Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: Association with Inflammatory Phenotype and HLA Genotype
Published: Wednesday, June 06, 2012
Author: Didier Payen et al.

by Didier Payen, Anne-Claire Lukaszewicz, Matthieu Legrand, Etienne Gayat, Valérie Faivre, Bruno Megarbane, Elie Azoulay, Fabienne Fieux, Dominique Charron, Pascale Loiseau, Marc Busson


To investigate the association between severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) and outcome, systemic inflammatory phenotype and HLA genotype in severe sepsis.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Prospective multicenter observational study done in 4 intensive care units in two university hospitals. Severe sepsis and septic shock patients with at least 2 organ failures based on the SOFA score were classified: 1) "no AKI", 2) "mild AKI" (grouping stage 1 and 2 of AKIN score) and 3) "severe AKI" (stage 3 of AKIN score). Sequential measurements: The vasopressor dependency index (VDI; dose and types of drugs) to evaluate the association between hemodynamic status and the development of early AKI; plasma levels of IL-10, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), IL-6 and HLA-DR monocyte expression. Genotyping of the 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles with deduction of presence of HLA-DRB3, -DRB4 and -DRB5 genes. We used multivariate analysis with competitive risk model to study associations. Overall, 176 study patients (146 with septic shock) were classified from AKIN score as "no AKI" (n?=?43), "mild AKI" (n?=?74) or "severe AKI" (n?=?59). The VDI did not differ between groups of AKI. After adjustment, "mild and severe AKI" were an independent risk factor for mortality (HR 2.42 95%CI[1.01-5.83], p?=?0.048 and HR 1.99 95%CI[1.30-3.03], p?=?0.001 respectively). "Severe AKI" had higher levels of plasma IL-10, MIF and IL-6 compared to “no AKI” and mild AKI (p<0.05 for each), with no difference in mHLA-DR at day 0. HLA-DRB genotyping showed a significantly lower proportion of 4 HLA-DRB alleles among patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) (58%) than in patients with severe AKI who did not receive RRT (84%) (p?=?0.004).


AKI severity is independently associated with mortality and plasma IL-10, MIF or IL-6 levels. Presence of 4 alleles of HLA-DRB in severe AKI patients seems associated with a lower need of RRT.