by Xinmin Wu, Yunqian Li, Xilin Wan, Tabitha Mlowoka Kayira, Rangjuan Cao, Xingda Ju, Xiaojuan Zhu, Gang Zhao
Dependence receptors have been proved to act as tumor suppressors in tumorigenesis. Neogenin, a DCC homologue, well known for its fundamental role in axon guidance and cellular differentiation, is also a dependence receptor functioning to control apoptosis. However, loss of neogenin has been reported in several kinds of cancers, but its role in glioma remains to be further investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings
Western blot analysis showed that neogenin level was lower in glioma tissues than in their matching surrounding non-neoplastic tissues (n?=?13, p<0.01). By immunohistochemical analysis of 69 primary and 16 paired initial and recurrent glioma sections, we found that the loss of neogenin did not only correlate negatively with glioma malignancy (n?=?69, p<0.01), but also glioma recurrence (n?=?16, p<0.05). Kaplan-Meier plot and Cox proportional hazards modelling showed that over-expressive neogenin could prolong the tumor latency (n?=?69, p<0.001, 1187.6±162.6 days versus 687.4±254.2 days) and restrain high-grade glioma development (n?=?69, p<0.01, HR: 0.264, 95% CI: 0.102 to 0.687). By Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), we reported that neogenin promoter was methylated in 31.0% (9/29) gliomas, but absent in 3 kinds of glioma cell lines. Interestingly, the prevalence of methylation in high-grade gliomas was higher than low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic brain tissues (n?=?33, p<0.05) and overall methylation rate increased as glioma malignancy advanced. Furthermore, when cells were over-expressed by neogenin, the apoptotic rate in SHG-44 was increased to 39.7% compared with 8.1% in the blank control (p<0.01) and 9.3% in the negative control (p<0.01). Conclusions/Significance
These observations recapitulated the proposed role of neogenin as a tumor suppressor in gliomas and we suggest its down-regulation owing to promoter methylation is a selective advantage for glioma genesis, progression and recurrence. Furthermore, the induction of apoptosis in SHG-44 cells after overexpression of neogenin, indicated that neogenin could be a novel target for glioma therapy.