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Mental Health - Pharmacology - Public Health and Epidemiology

Effect on Adherence to Nicotine Replacement Therapy of Informing Smokers Their Dose Is Determined by Their Genotype: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Published: Wednesday, April 11, 2012
Author: Theresa M. Marteau et al.

by Theresa M. Marteau, Paul Aveyard, Marcus R. Munafò, A. Toby Prevost, Gareth J. Hollands, David Armstrong, Stephen Sutton, Chloe Hill, Elaine Johnstone, Ann Louise Kinmonth


The behavioural impact of pharmacogenomics is untested. We tested two hypotheses concerning the behavioural impact of informing smokers their oral dose of NRT is tailored to analysis of DNA.

Methods and Findings

We conducted an RCT with smokers in smoking cessation clinics (N?=?633). In combination with NRT patch, participants were informed that their doses of oral NRT were based either on their mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) genotype, or their nicotine dependence questionnaire score (phenotype). The proportion of prescribed NRT consumed in the first 28 days following quitting was not significantly different between groups: (68.5% of prescribed NRT consumed in genotype vs 63.6%, phenotype group, difference ?=? 5.0%, 95% CI -0.9,10.8, p ?=? 0.098). Motivation to make another quit attempt among those (n ?=? 331) not abstinent at six months was not significantly different between groups (p ?=? 0.23). Abstinence at 28 days was not different between groups (p?=?0.67); at six months was greater in genotype than phenotype group (13.7% vs 7.9%, difference ?=? 5.8%, 95% CI 1.0,10.7, p ?=? 0.018).


Informing smokers their oral dose of NRT was tailored to genotype not phenotype had a small, statistically non-significant effect on 28-day adherence to NRT. Among those still smoking at six months, there was no evidence that saying NRT was tailored to genotype adversely affected motivation to make another quit attempt. Higher abstinence rate at six months in the genotype arm requires investigation.

Trial registration ISRCTN14352545.