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Factors Associated with Sexual Violence against Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgendered Individuals in Karnataka, India
Published: Tuesday, March 20, 2012
Author: Souradet Y. Shaw et al.

by Souradet Y. Shaw, Robert R. Lorway, Kathleen N. Deering, Lisa Avery, H. L. Mohan, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Sushena Reza-Paul, Shajy Isac, Banadakoppa M. Ramesh, Reynold Washington, Stephen Moses, James F. Blanchard


There is a lack of information on sexual violence (SV) among men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals (MSM-T) in southern India. As SV has been associated with HIV vulnerability, this study examined health related behaviours and practices associated with SV among MSM-T.


Data were from cross-sectional surveys from four districts in Karnataka, India.


Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors related to SV. Multivariable negative binomial regression models examined the association between physician visits and SV.


A total of 543 MSM-T were included in the study. Prevalence of SV was 18% in the past year. HIV prevalence among those reporting SV was 20%, compared to 12% among those not reporting SV (p?=?.104). In multivariable models, and among sex workers, those reporting SV were more likely to report anal sex with 5+ casual sex partners in the past week (AOR: 4.1; 95%CI: 1.2–14.3, p?=?.029). Increased physician visits among those reporting SV was reported only for those involved in sex work (ARR: 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1–2.7, p?=?.012).


These results demonstrate high levels of SV among MSM-T populations, highlighting the importance of integrating interventions to reduce violence as part of HIV prevention programs and health services.