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Infectious Diseases - Urology

The Safety, Effectiveness and Concentrations of Adjusted Lopinavir/Ritonavir in HIV-Infected Adults on Rifampicin-Based Antitubercular Therapy
Published: Wednesday, March 07, 2012
Author: Eric H. Decloedt et al.

by Eric H. Decloedt, Gary Maartens, Peter Smith, Concepta Merry, Funeka Bango, Helen McIlleron


Rifampicin co-administration dramatically reduces plasma lopinavir concentrations. Studies in healthy volunteers and HIV-infected patients showed that doubling the dose of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or adding additional ritonavir offsets this interaction. However, high rates of hepatotoxicity were observed in healthy volunteers. We evaluated the safety, effectiveness and pre-dose concentrations of adjusted doses of LPV/r in HIV infected adults treated with rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment.


Adult patients on a LPV/r-based antiretroviral regimen and rifampicin-based tuberculosis therapy were enrolled. Doubled doses of LPV/r or an additional 300 mg of ritonavir were used to overcome the inducing effect of rifampicin. Steady-state lopinavir pre-dose concentrations were evaluated every second month.


18 patients were enrolled with a total of 79 patient months of observation. 11/18 patients were followed up until tuberculosis treatment completion. During tuberculosis treatment, the median (IQR) pre-dose lopinavir concentration was 6.8 (1.1–9.2) mg/L and 36/47 (77%) were above the recommended trough concentration of 1 mg/L. Treatment was generally well tolerated with no grade 3 or 4 toxicity: 8 patients developed grade 1 or 2 transaminase elevation, 1 patient defaulted additional ritonavir due to nausea and 1 patient developed diarrhea requiring dose reduction. Viral loads after tuberculosis treatment were available for 11 patients and 10 were undetectable.


Once established on treatment, adjusted doses of LPV/r co-administered with rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment were tolerated and LPV pre-dose concentrations were adequate.